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equal-channel angular extrusion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the mechanics and processing characteristics of equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE). Tool design considerations for the ECAE are discussed. During ECAE, severe plastic strains and simple shear deformation mode contribute to strong, sometimes unusual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Roll forging Cross rolling Surface rolling Shear forming Tube reducing Radial roll forming Extrusion Nonlubricated hot extrusion Lubricated direct hot extrusion Hydrostatic extrusion Co-extrusion Equal channel angular extrusion Drawing Drawing Drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-called grain co-rotation scheme in Al7554 ( Ref 30 ), which particularly affect the evolution of low-angle misorientations and, overall, act to soften the textures produced by compression testing. Grain subdivision during high shear processing (equal-channel angular extrusion, or ECAE) has also been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... process Workability-limited process parameter selection Conventional steel tooling Can/decan costs; can design Wide working temperature range Preform/extrusion diameter trade-off Refined microstructure High product yield Large experience base Equal-channel angular extrusion High rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are developed, eventually giving rise to an equiaxed structure of high-angle boundaries. Such a mechanism forms the basis for grain refinement in so-called severe-plastic-deformation processes such as equal channel angular extrusion ( Ref 19 , Ref 20 , Ref 21 ). This mechanism of grain refinement is sometimes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are developed, eventually giving rise to an equiaxed structure of high-angle boundaries. Such a mechanism forms the basis for grain refinement in so-called severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes such as equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) ( Ref 4 , Ref 5 , Ref 6 ). This mechanism of grain refinement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.9781627081856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... forming at lower temperatures and/or higher strain rates than materials with conventional microstructures. Such materials typically contain a submicrocrystalline microstructure produced by severe plastic-deformation techniques such as equal-channel angular extrusion, multiaxial ( abc ) forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of size scale at lower temperatures requires conditions not covered herein, including nonmonotonic or cyclic deformations and strain path changes, for example, equal channel angular extrusion (ECA) ( Ref 29 ) or cyclic compression ( Ref 30 ), or by adding hard particles and fibers to the metal ( Ref 31...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... ). Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) Resin transfer molding (RTM) provides an excellent example of the uses of process models ( Ref 4 , 15 , 17 , and 18 ). In just the filling and curing of a RTM part, many physical phenomena transpire. A viscous polymer flows through a network of channels created...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... by shear on the tools. In the case of ample clearance and a clean fracture, the result obtained is high, because the calculation is based on the assumption that the working pressure without shear is equal to the maximum pressure recorded, throughout the working distance. Actually, however, the pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.9781627081962
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... The implications of the rate-sensitivity law in the SCYS are the following. First, since any stress will induce some amount of plastic yield, the SCYS needs to be identified with an equal-dissipation surface, defined as the locus σ:D = constant. A consequence of this definition is the normality or associative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... or warm severe plastic deformation (SPD), produced by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) ( Ref 3 ), high pressure torsion (HPT) ( Ref 4 ), or merely large strain torsion testing ( Ref 5 ). Ultrafine grain strucutres can be obtained in this way. Discontinuous Dynamic Recrystallization When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... expansion Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), r -bar value Bending under tension limits Angular stretch-bend test Height at failure, stretch-bendability index UTS, r -bar value Springback and curl Channel draw test Springback opening angle, radius of sidewall curl Yield strength, tool radii...
Book Chapter

By Eugene Shapiro
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... cracks being observed in the outer fiber (tension) surface. This forming limit commonly is called the minimum bend radius and is expressed in multiples of specimen thickness, t . A material with a minimum bend radius of 3 t can be bent without cracking through a radius equal to three times the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... successful when they provide corollary advantages that are not available with traditional competitive materials as previously described. Two categories of pultruded shapes distinguish a processor's business focus. The first category, standard structural shapes, includes channels, tubes (round, square...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ground surface. (c) Normal, homogeneous structure of an unused rod examined for comparison; this structure contains equal amounts of ferrite (light) and pearlite (dark). (d) Unsatisfactory structure of the fractured rod, which contains alternating bands of ferrite and pearlite. Preliminary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... forming can be segmented or contoured to apply equal stretch to all parts of the sheet as it is formed. The vertical adapter shown in Fig. 5 is used with a rotary table; it is fastened to the hydraulic cylinder used for applying tension to the blank. The adapter allows wiper shoes, rollers, and grippers...