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epitaxial deposition

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the vapor-phase growth techniques applied to the epitaxial deposition of semiconductor films and discusses the fundamental processes involved in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It reviews the thermodynamics that determine the driving force behind...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of films that are commonly deposited using the PECVD process are noncrystalline materials such as oxides, nitrides, and oxynitrides of silicon ( Ref 1 ), and crystalline materials such as polycrystalline silicon ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 ), epitaxial silicon ( Ref 5 , 6 , 7 ), and refractory metals and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... This is often the goal in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of semiconductor thin films. In the growth of semiconductor materials it is desirable to form an interface that is defect-free so that electronically active sites are not generated. Such an interface can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that use the vacuum environment to control contamination and provide a long mean free path for vaporized material can be defined as vacuum deposition processes: Molecular beam epitaxy Ionized cluster beam deposition Ion beam sputter deposition Jet vapor deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... PLD is currently being used to deposit thin films for a wide range of technological applications. These films vary from epitaxial superlattices of electronic materials to polycrystalline bioceramics. Several recent review articles have attempted to catalog research efforts to date ( Ref 15 , 56 , 57...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article presents the principles of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with illustrations. It discusses the types of CVD processes, namely, thermal CVD, plasma CVD, laser CVD, closed-reactor CVD, chemical vapor infiltration, and metal-organic CVD. The article reviews the CVD reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) versus Knudsen number (Kn). FB-CVD, fluidized-bed CVD; LPCVD, low-pressure CVD; UHVCVD, ultrahigh-vacuum CVD; MBE, molecular beam epitaxy For an equilibrium gas composed of hard spheres of diameter d , λ is given by Eq 12 . At...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reaction sintering and self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis. It also describes several pressure densification methods, including hot isostatic pressing, gas pressure sintering, molten particle deposition, and sol-gel processing. The article concludes with a section on grain growth that discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... CTE coefficient of thermal expansion CVD chemical vapor deposition CVI chemical vapor infiltration CVN Charpy V-notch (impact test or specimen) cw continuous wave d day d used in mathematical expressions involving a derivative (denotes rate of change); depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... making multiple-layered materials with molecular-level compositional control is described in Ref 8 . The technique, called electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (ECALE), takes advantage of the underpotential deposition (UPD) phenomenon that occurs when the first monolayer (or partial monolayer) of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... materials. There is an even larger set of semiconducting materials that are available only in the form of thin films grown on the surface of single-crystal wafers. For a few specific classes of materials and deposition techniques, these thin films can be grown epitaxially on the surface of a single...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.9781627081627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... uniaxial creep testing uniaxial tensile testing THE TERM “THIN FILMS” is usually applied to metallic and nonmetallic layers of thickness of the order of microns or fractions of microns that are deposited on a variety of substrates. Their mechanical resistance is of particular interest, because high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... crystallographic technique, other diffraction techniques can provide information on the surface structure. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction is applied widely to the epitaxial growth of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) films. X-ray diffraction also can be used for surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... electronic ceramics are used in the form of thin films. Films can be grown by epitaxial techniques, chemical vapor deposition, or other deposition techniques. This form of electronic ceramics can be used to place devices or components directly on silicon, GaAs, or other semiconductors to fabricate integrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the elemental concentration and to σ. Because this bubble material is an insulator, a thin film of aluminum was deposited on top of it before analysis to provide a return path for the beam current. Therefore, the backscattering signal of each element was shifted toward lower energies by an amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control, as in modern molecular beam epitaxy or physical and chemical vapor deposition methods ( Ref 7 , 8 ) which work under UHV base pressure conditions ( Ref 7 ). The principles of the main analysis methods are outlined in the following sections of this article. (For a quick survey and comparison of...