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environmentally assisted crack growth

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rapid crack growth by ductile or brittle cracking; more progressive (subcritical) forms involve crack growth by fatigue, creep, or environmentally-assisted cracking. Corrosion and wear are another form of progressive material alteration or removal that can lead to failure or obsolescence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... The stress intensity ( K ISCC ) at crack initiation and the crack growth rate as a function of K ISCC can be measured. This method is conservative because it uses precracked specimens, which will give the lowest initiation K ISCC . The method is sensitive to differences in alloy, heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ). Grain boundaries or the preferred path of crack growth can become embrittled by a variety of environmental conditions, such as hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and corrosion. If the process occurs by oxidation or dissolution, it is corrosion. If the cracking is exacerbated by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... nickel alloys suffer environmentally assisted cracking are highly specific and therefore avoidable by proper design of the industrial components. corrosion corrosive environments environmentally assisted cracking high-temperature corrosion industrial applications nickel alloys NICKEL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride. Source: Ref 11 The linear elastic fracture mechanics approach to the study of SCC is focused on the growth of stress-corrosion cracks in specimens that contain a small preexisting crack. It uses the stress-intensity factor at the crack tip, K I...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... efficiently while still acknowledging the desire for growth. Sustainability balances current and future needs. Since the population will continue to increase, sustainability will help balance the economic, social, and environmental impact of actions we take to create the built environment. A few facts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... now termed solid-metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE). In either case, the metal-induced embrittlement is the result of subcritical crack growth in the structural metal, when it is stressed in tension in the presence of a specific lower-melting-point metal or alloy. Metal-induced embrittlement has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the vapor-phase growth techniques applied to the epitaxial deposition of semiconductor films and discusses the fundamental processes involved in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). It reviews the thermodynamics that determine the driving force behind...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. Many elements of fracture have been used to describe and categorize the types of fractures encountered in the laboratory and in service. These elements include loading conditions, rate of crack growth, and macroscopic and microscopic appearance of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... burnishing in which opposite halves of the fracture have rubbed together and to identify regions covered with corrosion products. The regions least affected by this kind of damage should be selected for microanalysis. When stable crack growth has continued for an extended period, the region nearest the fast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are brittle and possess cracklike morphologies that can adversely affect alloy tensile and stress-rupture ductility and impair resistance of the alloy to crack growth ( Ref 91 ). High-temperature degradation in aircraft gas turbine engines is generally due to high-temperature oxidation and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ). In corrosion fatigue studies of a zirconium-base metallic glass, the fatigue crack growth rate ( da / dN ) was increased over 3 orders of magnitude, and the threshold stress-intensity factor range (Δ K th ) was significantly reduced in a NaCl solution compared to tests in air. In fact, one of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environmental cracking resistance of the cobalt alloys. Three welding processes that are used for hardfacing with the high-carbon Co-Cr-W alloys, namely, oxyacetylene, gas tungsten arc, and plasma-transferred arc are also discussed. The article examines the effects of various modes of high-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... continue growth. Free-radical reactions result in chain scission (breaking of the molecular chain), depolymerization (reducing a polymeric chain to its monomer units), branching (a short growth at a free-radical site), self cyclization (forming a circular molecule by joining with another portion of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of activity at the chain end. The newly formed free radical might pick up another hydrogen atom somewhere else, or react with a monomer, or react elsewhere to continue growth. Free radical reactions result in chain scission (breaking of the molecular chain); depolymerization (reducing a polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... optimum balance is required between design, materials selection, and processing. Polymers are used in applications requiring exposure to acids, bases, solvents, and other industrial chemicals. Stress-corrosion cracking in metals is well established. Similar failures in polymers are known as environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ). Compressive residual stress developed during ion bombardment in certain PVD processes retards crack propagation and thus produces a fracture toughness advantage for PVD-coated tools. Grain boundary voids developed during columnar growth of some PVD coatings do not allow retention of residual stresses and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... current density determination by Tafel extrapolation, potentiodynamic measurement of the polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance measurement, and potentiostatic deaeration. Tests combining corrosion and mechanical forces, such as fretting corrosion tests, environment-assisted cracking tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of material- and environmental-specific constants a and b ; the linear elastic stress-intensity factor range, Δ K ; an activation energy, Q e ; and the temperature, T . Equation 12 estimates the fatigue crack growth per cycle, da / dN , as a function of material- and environmental-specific...