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environmental stress crazing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... craze zone formation is not completely understood. The solution composition of the environmental media is found to be important in stress cracking ( Ref 47 , 48 ). It has been reported that the same amount of a detergent in alcohol is less aggressive than it is in water, although the detergent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... amorphous regions of the polymer, causing a reduction of these intermolecular forces and leading to molecular slippage and craze formation. Fig. 3 View of hydrogen bonding molecular interactions in a polyamide 6,6, resulting in attraction between neighboring molecules Environmental stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... limited by the synergistic effects of stress and a hostile environment. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as environmental stress cracking (ESC), causes the initiation of crazing and crack formation which can lead to failure by changing the material from a ductile to a brittle plastic...
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Published: 01 January 2005
. Corrosion form and mechanism Environmental crazing, stress-corrosion cracking Material Polycarbonate Product form Window More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... on the environmentally assisted crack growth of polymers is also included. The article details the evaluation of nanoscale environmental effects and indentation-induced cohesive cracking. It also provides information on scanning probe microscopy. hydrogen embrittlement stress-corrosion cracking corrosion fatigue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... macromolecular structure. Applied stress serves to straighten the polymer chains and perhaps to redistribute the free volume so that sizable microvoids are formed. Depending on the nature of the polymer, these microvoids continue to grow into localized areas of stress whitening, stress crazing, stress cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...., alkalis and acids), ionizing radiation, and biological degradation, along with the combined effects of mechanical stress, temperature, and moisture (including environmental stress corrosion). The article also includes information on the use of accelerated testing for predicting material property...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The section is viewed between crossed polarizers, showing shear bands. Stress Crazing As previously noted, a craze is a microcrack that is spanned by plastic microfibrils, typically oriented in the direction of applied stress. The width of a craze is of the order of 1 to 2 μm, and it may grow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... how the applied stress, strain and/or strain rate, and temperature influence the rate of creep and stress relaxation and produce yielding. In addition, the effects of thermal and mechanical history must be considered. Polymers deform by two primary mechanisms: shear flow and crazing ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is highly influenced by the presence of stress concentrations or defects in the component. Environmental influences include temperature, humidity, and the presence of chemical species that can embrittle or plasticize the polymer ( Ref 14 – 25 ). Moreover, fatigue behavior is highly influenced by molecular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... These events are understandable considering ABS undergoes shear yielding mechanisms and the HIPS undergoes crazing that requires a tensile component of stress. Crazing results from fibrillation or polymeric drawing ahead of the fatigue flaw. The advancement of the craze zone is associated with damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the compression half-cycle. This area remains almost constant for several cycles and then increases significantly ( Fig. 4 ). This effect is attributed to the production and growth of crazes after some induction period. For ABS, an increase of stress amplitude causes the energy to dissipate per half-cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... four of the eight major aging mechanisms, namely environmental stress cracking, chemical degradation, creep, and fatigue, as well as the methods used in product service lifetime assessment for them. Later, several methods of service lifetime prediction that have gained industry-wide acceptance, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... by craze formation and/or shear yielding. The yield surfaces for crazing and shear yielding under biaxial stress is depicted in Fig. 15 . When a polymer yields by shear band formation, prior to craze formation, fracture is suppressed until the ability of the matrix to form shear bands is exhausted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and follow the advised overcoating times. Alligatoring (Crocodiling) Fig. 3 Very large (macro) crazing/cracking that resembles the skin of an alligator or crocodile. Cracks may penetrate through to the undercoat or down to the substrate. Probable causes: Internal stresses in the coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... mechanism of fracture, such as crazing and shear tearing, and the various fracture modes of polymers, such as brittle and ductile behavior, fatigue, environmental stress cracking, creep, and others, are covered in the articles “ Crazing and Fracture in Polymers ,” “ Fracture Mechanics Testing of Plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... deformation Crazing and stress-cracking Fracture or crazing due to an internal environmental chemical or stress-cracking agent Fracture or crazing due to an external chemical or stress-cracking agent May occur due to high level of internal stress or to externally applied stress Fatigue...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Engineering plastics offer unique product benefits based on physical properties, or combinations of physical properties, that allow vastly improved product performance. Providing an overview of the general characteristics and the mechanical and environmental stress response...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... applied to cover environmental conditions. This is particularly true for bearing strength of composite materials. However, the complex interaction of stress transfer is usually not applied, even if understood. The removed damage does not result in geometrically perfect interfaces; however, the analysis...