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environmental burdens

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... overlooked step in the LCA process is to identify potential improvement pathways. design for recycling environmental burdens life-cycle analysis product design scrap AS LANDFILLS CLOSE and costs of waste disposal increase, manufacturers of industrial and consumer products face a new challenge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The process starts with a definition of the goal and scope of the project; because LCAs usually require extensive resources and time, this first step limits the study to a manageable and practical scope. In the following steps of the study, the environmental burdens (including both consumed energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... able to use PMCs to their advantage while also being recyclable. Life Cycle Assessment Polymer-matrix composites have been compared with other materials to estimate the environmental burdens in automobile applications over the entire product life cycle. It was found that carbon- or glass- fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of the consequences on the environment of these changes Improvement analysis: The evaluation and implementation of opportunities to reduce environmental burdens Inventory Airborne emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), particulates, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... two major ways: first, by environmental transport, that is, by human or anthropogenic contributions to air, water, soil, and food, and second, by altering the speciation or biochemical form of the element ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Metals are redistributed naturally in the environment by both geologic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... However, during the melting process, the cupola emits considerable amounts of smoke and particulate matter. Known as emissions, this waste gas stream is now cleaned to meet the highest environmental standards, but this has required much engineering effort and considerable expense. With environmental laws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract Aging is a process where the structural and/or functional integrity of components will be continuously degraded by exposure to the environmental conditions under which they are operated. This article discusses aging mechanisms in various components of military systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract The chemicals that have been used in traditional vapor degreasing have serious health and environmental hazards that have prompted the search for modified and alternative techniques. This article provides a detailed discussion on the regulatory mandates that affect the use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract This article describes selected U.S. environmental statutes and regulations that are pertinent to material surface finishers. It provides information on the applicability, requirements, and permitting conditions of the Clean Air Act, the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of corrosion is estimated at over $1.9 trillion for 2004 or roughly 3.8% of the world gross domestic product (GDP). This is a heavy tax burden on any country's economy, whether small or large. Currently, the U.S. DoD is facing the cause and effects of corrosion in its budgetary plans where maintenance...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., and environmental constraints. mechanical properties composites repeatability cost size damage tolerance durability environmental constraints design criteria DESIGN CRITERIA are the decisive quantified goals that a product must attain. A product needs to achieve a certain level of safety, cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... ( Ref 22 ). Solid fluxes are blends of salts, which, at the present time, are the most preferred type of fluxes used in foundries, especially since gaseous mixtures with chlorine have been almost completely eliminated because of environmental concerns. Even though there are many different commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of the coatings industry supply chain is embracing formal QMS as a means of achieving specified requirements. While still important and a component of QM, in-process inspection alone is no longer sufficient to measure overall quality, improvement, and conformance. While many see QM as a burden, appropriately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to metal silicates. Additional Considerations Lead continues to be of concern even though potable water intake is not a major contributor of body burden lead. Progress has been made to replace lead pipes and goosenecks, as well as banning lead solder. However, there still remain a significant number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The major benefit of the implementation of the corrosion-control technologies at Army installations is the extension of the service life of buildings and other structures. This article reviews the exposure of military facilities and equipment to a wide variety of environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... an onerous maintenance or inspection burden upon the operator. The level of damage associated with the durability requirement is associated with typical impact events or manufacturing-induced flaws. Durability is primarily an economic issue and applies to all structures. Damage Tolerance Damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of the structure under typical load and environmental spectra must show that catastrophic failure due to fatigue, corrosion, or accidental damage will be avoided throughout the operational life of the aircraft. This can be ensured only with an adequate inspection program, and therefore the evaluation must result...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of environmental concerns and more efficient technologies. However, some foundries still employ this technique, especially on small crucible furnaces. The second most popular degassing technique in historical use—and still used today (2008)—is a simple flux wand or static lance. This can be a steel pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... will be enormous. This situation points out the near-irreversibility of somewhat arbitrary standardization decisions. Because of the relative permanence of their decisions, standards writers bear a particularly heavy burden of responsibility. Purposes and Objectives of Codes and Standards The protection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Existing railcars present the additional burden of having to remove the old coating, which may be partially offset by there being an existing profile and original level of cleanliness. Once applied, the volatile portion of the wet film is evaporated as rapidly as the physical features of the facility...