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entrainment defects

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... features of the system. entrainment defects naturally pressurized filling system gravity-poured castings prepriming techniques filters mold-filling designs FILLING the casting cavity with molten metal can be accomplished in various ways. Filling methods differ among the various casting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., involving pouring or other types of surface turbulence. These actions entrain (fold in) the surface film to create entrainment defects. These are principally: Bubbles (that in turn create bubble trails) Bifilms, which are doubled-over surface films that act as cracklike defects Various entrained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... homogenization without involving the generation of significant entrainment defects. The spin centrifuges the hot metal to the walls of the cylinder, where its action will be concentrated on solutionizing the additives placed around the circumference of the base of the chamber. The spin also delays the contact...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that double-oxide films are not present. This is because these damaging but undetectable defects, if present, will effectively be labeled and made plainly visible on x-ray radiographs and polished sections by the precipitation of dissolved gas. Rule 2: Liquid Front Damage This is the requirement...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... system and mold cavity can increase mechanical and thermal attack on the mold. More important, turbulence may produce casting defects by promoting the entrainment of gases into the flowing metal. These gases may by themselves become defects (for example, bubbles), or they may produce dross or inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... nucleate such defects as pores and cracks by heterogeneous nucleation. The melt surface is usually covered with a film, usually an oxide film. The entrainment of this surface film during pouring leads to many defects on which pores and cracks can grow. The defects include bubbles and their associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract Coatings, such as those applied to ships, must be resistant to abrasion, in the case of cargo hold coatings, and cyclic changes of chemicals and tank cleaning, in the case of tank linings. Failures and defects can manifest themselves at various times in the life of a coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The primary purpose of this article is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in the bulk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... is a mixture of two main components: aggregate and paste. The paste binds the aggregates (usually sand and gravel or crushed stone) into a rocklike mass as the paste hardens through the chemical reaction of the cement and water. The paste is composed of water and entrapped air or purposely entrained air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of extrusion as well as thermodynamics. The finite-element method suitable for simulation of metal forming processes is explained. The article examines the extrusion defects that are divided into three different categories including surface, subsurface, and internal type. It includes information on friction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds. It presents the international classification of common casting defects in a tabular form. austenitic steels cast aluminum alloys cast iron casting casting defects casting design castings centrifugal casting corrosion-resistant castings discontinuities ductile iron gravity die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... significantly alter the intrinsic corrosion rate of the steel. Fusion welding produces a weld metal that, due to the high cooling rate, is effectively a chill casting containing a high density of lattice defects and segregation of elements ( Ref 1 ). A wide range of microstructures can be developed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the production process, testing methods, quality control, and common defects found in heavy-section ductile iron (DI) castings, along with analyses of industrial examples. The common defects include shrinkage defects, graphite-particle-related defects...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and the capabilities and variables of the process. It also presents a discussion on the melt solidification, resulting structure, and ingot defects. The article concludes with a discussion on the VAR process of superalloy and titanium and titanium alloy. solidification superalloys titanium titanium alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the concepts involved in heat-transfer modeling, thermomechanical modeling, and microsegregation modeling of hot tearing. It discusses the modeling of solidification defects, namely, inclusion entrapment, segregation, shrinkage cavities, gas porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... false brinelling and fretting corrosion is to stop the vibration, or rotate the components to entrain fresh oil, or both. Each time components entrain fresh oil, the incubation period restarts, and the wear regime shifts to mild adhesive wear. The length of the incubation period depends on lubricant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... material, production method, and/or design. The article also addresses conditions related to the casting process but not specific to any metal group, including misruns, pour shorts, broken cores, and foundry expertise. The discussion in each casting metal group includes factors concerning defects that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pitting and manufacturing defects has become more important. This article presents case histories that are intended as an overview of the unique types of failures encountered in the freight railroad industry. The discussion covers failures of axle journals, bearings, wheels, couplers, rails and rail welds...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and anodizing. Fig. 1 Effect of metal cleanliness on fluidity of an aluminum die casting alloy. Source: Ref 1 Thus, inclusion-related defects should be minimized to the greatest extent possible to prevent scrap castings, lost productivity, and lower profitability. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and dimensioning, the design and manufacture of shell molds, melting and casting methods, and postcasting operations such as knockout, core removal, and cleaning. It also addresses a wide range of design considerations, discusses casting defects, and provides several design examples. aluminum alloys casting...