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energy-depth conversion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... this condition. This is followed by a section on equipment used in RBS analysis. Channel-energy conversion, energy-depth conversion, and separation of the dechanneling background are then discussed as the main steps of RBS data analysis. The article also discusses the applications of RBS—including composition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the interface or flaw and (b) the acoustic impedance of such a reflector. Energy reflected from various interfaces and flaws can be used to define the presence and locations of flaws, the thickness of the material, and the depth of a flaw beneath a surface. Most ultrasonic inspections are performed using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... inelastic scattering events and lose their characteristic energy. Only those electrons from the near-surface region can escape without losing a significant portion of their energy and can be identified as Auger electrons. This average depth normal to the surface, from which electrons escape the solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... transducer in pulse-echo. Courtesy of Iowa State University Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Theoretically, the maximum depth of inspection is controlled by the pulse-repetition rate. For example, if a pulse of 10 MHz ultrasound energy is transmitted at a pulse-repetition rate of 500 pulses per...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the N ( E ) curve were shown to be proportional to the number of atoms originating the Auger electrons. These measurements are commonly used to quantify Auger spectra. Electron Escape Depths The most useful kinetic energy range of Auger electrons is from 20 to 2500 eV and corresponds to electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... travel a short distance before interacting with other atoms and losing energy. This short distance is referred to as the escape depth of the electron. Escape depths range from 0.5 to 10 nm, depending on the kinetic energy of the emitted electron and the material being analyzed. It is this small range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The region within which these waves propagate with effective energy is not much thicker than approximately one wavelength beneath the surface of the metal, which in aluminum at 1 MHz is 2.9 mm (0.1 in.). At this depth, wave energy is approximately 4% of the wave energy at the surface, and the amplitude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... spectroscopy (AES) Incident electron beam initiates a multistep process to facilitate the ejection of an outer shell electron. The energy of this ejected electron is characteristic of the surface atoms. Elemental identity and composition of the surface species and the depth profile X-ray photoelectron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Figure 8 illustrates conversion from channeling spectrum to depth distribution of defect, representing channeled backscattering spectra of 2.4-MeV He + ions from single-crystal silicon prebombarded with high dose H + at various energies. Figure 9 shows a direct translation from energy spectra...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-breaking cracks. When the Rayleigh wave interacts with a crack that is propagating at 90° to the sample surface, as shown in the figure, some energy is reflected, and, depending on the crack-depth-to-wavelength ratio, some energy may be transmitted ( Ref 3 , 41 , 47 , 48 ). Measurement can use one...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... travel only a short distance before interacting with other atoms and losing energy. This short distance is referred to as the escape depth of the electron. Escape depths range from 0.5 to 10 nm, depending on the kinetic energy of the emitted electron and the material being analyzed. It is this small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... axial position relative to workpiece or anvil (such as the heel plunge depth or pin/anvil gap) Tool axial force (for axial load control method) Auxiliary heating or cooling method and parameters, if used Postweld processing (surface modification, heat treatment, etc.), if used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compound involves incorporation of the main element in the substrate (i.e., iron) through oxidation of the surface in the presence of acidic zinc phosphate. Fig. 1 Auger electron spectroscopy depth profile of polished aluminum alloy 2024-T3 solid solution matrix exposed to Alodine 1200S conversion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to austenitizing temperature for the specified depth. With this frequency, the current penetration relative to the section size causes current cancellation and lowered efficiency. Poor indicates a frequency that will overheat the surface unless low-energy input is used. Efficiency and production are low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... dimensions (in which case the in-depth resolution would be atomic or monomolecular), but Fig. 3 illustrates that ejected secondary ions originate from a layer with a finite thickness termed the escape depth. The escape depth varies to some extent with the energy and mass of the primary ions as well...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... case the in-depth resolution would be atomic or monomolecular), but Fig. 3 illustrates that the ejected secondary ions originate from a layer with a finite thickness termed the escape depth. The escape depth varies to some extent with the energy and mass of the primary ions as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Case depth is the normal distance from the surface of the steel to the start of the core. Measurement of case depth is highly sensitive to the type of case hardening, original steel composition, quenching condition, and even to the testing method. This article describes the various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... material composition, the incident particle, its energy, and the incident angle. The exact distribution of radioactive isotopes versus depth—referred to as the depth profile—or concentration (isotopes per mass unit) must be known in order to calculate the amount of wear from measured activities...