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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... result in extremely hazardous situations from the weakened structure when pressure is involved. The impervious nature of the impermeable membrane becomes critical in these situations. Fig. 14 Structure of a chemical-resistant vessel Two brick properties are important in chemical-resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... reactants are introduced in the reaction chamber, where thermal energy initiates gas phase and surface reactions. If thermodynamic conditions are favorable (see section “Physical Vapor Deposition and Related Processes” in this article), chemical reactions lead to the formation of a stable solid film on a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... challenge in engineering design. Performance specifications, risk and hazard analysis, design process, design for manufacture and assembly, design for quality, reliability in design, and redesign are considered for functional requirements. Life-cycle analysis considers raw-material extraction from the earth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... risk assessments of extracts is also included. The four basic steps that are commonly used in the risk assessment process are discussed. These steps include hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment, and risk characterization. biological evaluation chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... known as the Solid Waste Disposal Act, promotes the protection of health and the environment and the conservation of valuable material and energy resources. Virtually all chemical wastes have the potential to be defined as hazardous, because the EPA defines solid waste as any solid, liquid, semisolid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-based atmospheres, industrial gas nitrogen-base atmospheres, argon atmospheres, and hydrogen atmospheres. Atmospheres for backfilling, partial pressure operation, and quenching in vacuum are also discussed. Furnace atmospheres constitute four major groups of safety hazards in heat treating: fire...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Heat treating involves the use of fuel gases for heating and gases in the furnace atmosphere. This article describes the hazards associated with furnace atmospheres and the related safety considerations. It discusses the effect of fuel on combustion efficiency. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hammers and high-energy-rate forging machines are classified as energy-restricted machines as they deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. This article provides information on gravity-drop hammers, power-drop hammers, die forger hammers, counterblow hammers, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discusses the concept of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a quantitative accounting of the environmental and economic costs of using a given material and the energy required to make, distribute, operate, and eventually dispose of the host product and its constituent materials. An important but often overlooked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. This article describes the fundamentals of the ion implantation process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This article provides a detailed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...) applications Process equipment Reformers, reactors, hot isostatic pressing Chemical process industry, petroleum refining Waste incineration systems Handling equipment, internals, cleanup Conventional and advanced toxic/hazardous waste facilities, with or without energy recovery Separation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... disposal as follows: Treatment: “Any method, technique, or process including neutralization, designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of any hazardous waste so as to recover energy or material resources from the waste, or so as to reduce such waste to non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... decreased machine maintenance and fluid disposal. When the time comes to dispose of spent fluids, consideration must be given to the myriad of regulations that protect the environment and the people from improper dumping of hazardous materials. All municipalities and states have the authority to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) Combinations of these materials The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified these materials as being either hazardous air pollutants or ozone layer depleting substances. Some relevant regulations are identified in Table 1 , along with a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... proactive approach is the development of a product stewardship program. Such a program informs users of possible hazards and tells them how products should be used to avoid undue health, safety, and environmental risks. The program should cover the entire life cycle of a product. For instance, under the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Table 2 ). Fluidized bed furnaces are not only more energy-efficient than convection furnaces but also exhibit heat transfer efficiency similar to salt baths and lead pots, without the health and environmental safety hazards commonly associated with these systems. Of the different tempering systems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7