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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 8 Energy consumption for the production, use, recycling, and reuse of different fender materials considering the distance traveled by the automobile. Source: Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract Laser-beam welding (LBW) uses a moving high-density coherent optical energy source, called laser, as the source of heat. This article discusses the advantages and limitations of LBW and tabulates energy consumption and efficiency of LBW relative to other selected welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract Most welding lasers fall into the category of fiber, disc, or direct diode, all of which can be delivered by fiber optic. This article provides a comparison of the energy consumptions and efficiencies of laser beam welding (LBW) with other major welding processes. It discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0009211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... technology, and control methods and algorithms. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts on demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... for continuous melting and large throughput, while the induction furnaces are small and very flexible aggregates and the optimal choice for often changing the alloy composition of the melt charge and for small batches of high-quality melting products. Nevertheless, energy consumption plays an important role...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... by challenging processing demands, high alumina and silica content, and low alumina-to-silica (A/S) mass ratios. The current spread of specific energy consumption from the refining of alumina from bauxite varies from 7 to 21 GJ/t alumina. The energy usage for the low-temperature digestion of gibbsite bauxite...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of electron beam melting and competing processes Metal Sintering Vacuum arc melting Electron beam melting Advantages Limitations Advantages Limitations Advantages Limitations Tungsten, molybdenum Small grain size; most often used Refining limited; small batches; high energy consumption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... electronic applications energy consumption gas turbines thermal spray coating OVER THE YEARS, the thermal spray industry has seen significant growth in several markets, including the turbine industry. The reason for this growth in the turbine industry was the need to increase engine temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is satisfactory in smoothness and brightness. To minimize the energy consumption for the electrochemical cell, it is necessary to lower the electrolyte resistance and minimize the values of the respective overpotentials at the anode and cathode. Minimizing the distance between electrodes decreases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005905
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... the loss in the melting unit is reduced. A further advantage is the lower tapping temperature (by approximately 100 K) compared to the cases described previously, which leads to longer refractory service lives and reduced energy consumption. Fig. 6 Producing alloyed steel melts in an induction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... will decline, and the friction of the bore will be reduced. Inertia also decreases; energy consumption at the time of acceleration is reduced. Therefore, instead of the thick metal bearing (1.5 mm, or 0.059 in.) of the conventional insert bearing, the bearing material is directly coated (0.3 to 0.4 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... This type of furnace is accordingly well suited for storing larger volumes of molten iron. Moreover, channel furnaces also can be advantageously deployed for melting nonferrous metals because of their high electrical efficiency due to low energy consumption. The increasing requirements regarding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... performance. Often, too, significant improvements will be made after a relatively simple cradle-to-grave, or perhaps cradle-to-gate, analysis. A detergent company, for example, may find that most of the energy consumption associated with a detergent relates to its use, not its manufacture. So instead...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Exhaust gases from these burners also exit through the shaft and therefore ensure a greater degree of preheating as well as greater speed and efficiency of melting. Energy Efficiency Compared to other furnace designs, stack furnaces can result in substantial savings from lower fuel consumption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... widely applied in the production of various automotive components since the mid-1960s ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). Because DFQ methods eliminate the need for reheat treatment, they considerably reduce energy consumption, CO 2 emissions, and processing costs. In DHT processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... be maximizing production or minimizing end product cost. Therefore, in particular cases of IHI optimization, technical and economical indexes can be represented by criteria such as productivity, product quality and cost, energy consumption, material losses, and others ( Ref 2 , 3 ). When maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... in all end-use sectors—power, heat, and transport—and has supplied an estimated 16% of global final-energy consumption. Renewables delivered close to 20% of global electricity supply in 2010, and by early 2011 they comprised one-quarter of global power capacity from all sources ( Ref 1 ). This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... texture wear THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION engine (IC engine) is a practical example of a mechanical system containing multiple machine elements, which converts fuel energy into useful work. A good fraction (32%) of world energy consumption is spent on transportation ( Ref 1 ), in which the internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the general principles, optical systems, and emission sources of optical emission spectroscopy for elemental analysis. Changes in the energy of the valence or outer shell electrons result in the atomic lines used in emission spectroscopy. Each possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...; is environmentally friendly; has no arcs or sparks; and is cost-competitive. Energy consumption is low when compared to resistance welding or self-piercing rivets. Weld times are short and equipment operation is similar to that needed for resistance welding, thus easing manufacturing acceptance. The first...