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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics. Low-energy electron diffraction measurements are conducted by using a monoenergetic beam of electrons that impinges on the crystal surface. Diffraction of electrons occurs because of the periodic arrangement of atoms in the surface. This periodic arrangement can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... coverage to avoid radiation damage from the primary beam. The metal deposition rate on a sample surface is approximately 1.0 monolayer (ML) per 10 to 20 min using an evaporator. Fig. 9 Schematic view of low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy combined with an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. AES, Auger...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... composition and the binding energies between the different elements of the target must be defined, and particle transport inside the target during ion bombardment can be dynamically simulated. Various energies and incidence angles can be considered for species in the beam. Depth profiles of atomic species in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... thermoset cross-linking. The flexure fixture in Fig. 2(e) is used to measure viscosity in bending or tensile expansion of a beam without clamps. Fig. 2 (a) Vertical thermomechanical analyzer (TMA). Courtesy of TA Instruments Inc. (b) Netzsch TMA tension accessory. (c) Netzsch pushrod with sharp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... between the incident direction of the ion beam and the row of atoms such that the steering effect exists. When charged particles are incident in a direction exceeding the critical angle, those particles have transverse kinetic energy exceeding the collective string potential; the collective steering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This article provides a detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...., in keV), and the energy spread (e.g., in eV). Also important are the size of the ion emission region (e.g., in nm 2 ) and the solid angle of the emitted beam (e.g., in steradians), the product of which is called the etendue. A more frequently used metric for ion sources is the brightness...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... at the end of 2007. Electron beam melting and casting includes melting, refining, and conversion processes for metals and alloys. In electron beam melting, the feedstock is melted by impinging high-energy electrons. Electron beam refining takes place in vacuum in the pool of a water-cooled copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... array that emits a beam of ultrasonic waves when bursts of voltage are applied to it A couplant to transfer the input energy in the beam of ultrasonic waves from the transmitting transducer to the testpiece A couplant to transfer the output ultrasonic waves (acoustic energy) from the testpiece to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the 1950s to obtain very high resolution images of microstructures. As TEMs were enhanced to include features such as digitally scanned point beams and energy dispersive x-ray detectors for chemical microanalysis, alternative names, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... perform the 3-D reconstruction, CT systems require a computing procedure to calculate, locate, and display the point-by-point relative attenuation of the energy beam passing through the testpiece. Fig. 1 Comparison of (a) computed tomography (CT) and (b) radiography. A high-quality digital...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... layer (typically less than a micrometer) is an intrinsic limitation of the ion implantation process and is dictated by the physics of the energy loss processes. For applications requiring thicker surface-modified regions, it may be desirable to employ hybrid ion beam/coating processes. See the article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and K-M 2,3 = 2.464 keV), as shown in Fig. 10 .  Depending on the primary beam excitation energy, E 0 , two or more families of x-rays (K-shell, L-shell, M-shell, and N-shell) may be excited for intermediate- and high-atomic-number elements, such as the Fe K-shell and Fe L-shell families, as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... heights (or the number of x-ray counts at a given energy) can vary greatly depending on specimen geometry, atomic number, and electron beam energy, as discussed previously in this article. These factors must be taken into account by the analyst when interpreting even qualitative EDS results. Most EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... higher magnification in the SEM (>100,000×) and a greater depth of field of up to 100 times that of light microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis information can also be obtained using an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer with the SEM. The SEM generates a beam of incident...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... technique depends on the emission of characteristic x-radiation, usually in the 1 to 60 keV energy range, following excitation of atomic electron energy levels by an external energy source, such as an electron beam, a charged particle beam, or an x-ray beam. In most sample matrices, laboratory x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... remelting ( Ref 41 , 42 ), ion implantation ( Ref 43 ), sputter deposition, electrodeposition, and chemical vapor deposition. See, for example, the articles “Surface Modification Using Energy Beams” (ion implantation and laser surface processing are discussed) and “CVD and PVD Coatings” in ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., namely, oil and gas production, energy conversion systems, marine applications, and chemical processing. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion characteristics of the products, which are used in various applications of each industry. low-alloy steel alloy steel corrosion resistance oil and gas...