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endothermic generators

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the types of furnace atmospheres required for heat treating. These include generated exothermic-based atmospheres, generated endothermic-based atmospheres, generated exothermic-endothermic-based atmospheres, generated dissociated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., and general and administrative costs. The article discusses the techniques involved in allocating costs to the group of equipment, and presents a description on the cost analysis of endothermic gas. Determining the Cost of Endothermic Generator Gas Summary References References 1. ASM Committee...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... details). The relative amounts of these gases depend on the type of generator gas used, the processing temperature, and the amount of gas added during processing. For example, endothermic generator gas produced by catalytic reaction of natural gas with air results in the following composition (approximate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... annealing, quenching, coating diffusion, and precipitation. It describes the three general strengthening mechanisms, namely, solid-solution hardening, age hardening, and carbide precipitation. The article summarizes the typical heat treatment of the general families of nickel-base castings used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... … … 20.0 … Endothermic-Base Atmospheres Endothermic-base atmospheres are produced in generators that use air and a hydrocarbon gas as fuel. These two gases are mixed in a controlled ratio, slightly compressed, and then passed into a chamber filled with a nickel-bearing catalyst. This chamber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... fuel gas (decarburizing) Room temperature 14–15 70–71 9–10 5–6 BCu, BAg (a) , RBCuZn, BCuP Copper (b) , brass (a) , nickel and nickel alloys, low-alloy and medium-carbon steel (c) Decarburizes; commonly referred to as endothermic-generated atmosphere 3 Combusted fuel gas, dried −40 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...) , brass (a) , low nickel, Monel, medium-carbon steel (c) Decarburizes Referred to commonly as endothermic generated atmospheres 3 Combusted fuel gas,dried −40 °C (−40 °F) 15–16 73–75 10–11 Same as 2 Same as 2 plus medium- and high-carbon steels, Monel, nickel alloys Referred to commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... to sustain a carburizing atmosphere that proceeds in the forward direction. ( Ref 3 ). Gas carburizing atmospheres are often generated by enriching an endothermic carrier gas with methane. The carburizing potential of endothermic gas without hydrocarbon enrichment is not sufficient to produce significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... are the primary units, and SI unit conversion varies slightly for general-use grades and special-application grades in Ref 1 . (d) Ref 3 lists both grade designations. SI units are primary, and customary units are derived. Yield strength varies with wall thickness within range given in SI units. Hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... are cracked at an elevated temperature in the presence of a nickel catalyst in an endothermic generator. Meanwhile, a nitrogen-methanol atmosphere can either be made using a generator or within the furnace itself. Methanol is cracked to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen that is mixed with nitrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... classified by the American Gas Association on the basis of method of preparation or on the original constituents employed. These groups are designated and defined as follows: Class 100, exothermic base; Class 200, prepared nitrogen base; Class 300, endothermic base; Class 400, charcoal base; Class 500...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...), the most common atmosphere, endothermic gas, was used by ∼83% of the industry in 1976 for sintering carbon steels ( Ref 5 ). Endothermic gas is generated directly from partial combustion of natural gas. Exothermic gas, also a product of incomplete combustion of natural gas, was used by 5% of the industry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of Chemistry , 2016 11. Jansen J.A. , Plastic Component Failure Analysis , Adv. Mater. Process. , May 2001 , p 56 , 58 , 59 12. Roy Oberholtzer L.C. , General Design Considerations , Engineering Plastics , Vol 2 , Engineered Materials Handbook , ASM International , 1988...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...Abstract Abstract This article provides information on the most frequently used atmospheres in commercial sintering of powder metallurgy iron and steel materials. These include endothermic, exothermic, dissociated ammonia, pure hydrogen, and nitrogen-base atmospheres. The article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005958
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... carbon potential control. Source: Aichelin GmbH Fig. 1 Salt bath hardening line with salt recovery systems. Source: Durferrit GmbH Fig. 3 Endothermic gas generator (Endomat). Source: Aichelin GmbH Fig. 7 Schematic showing principle of the fluidized-bed furnace. (a) Initially...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the base ABS resin. Fig. 18 The FTIR spectrum obtained on the included particle, characteristic of polybutadiene Fig. 19 The DSC thermogram representing the reference clip material, exhibiting an endothermic transition characteristic of the melting of a nylon 6/6 resin. The results also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloy filler metal can be conducted in hydrogen or dissociated ammonia atmospheres. Low-temperature brazing using BAg series filler metals also is possible when hydrogen or dissociated ammonia atmospheres re used. Endothermically generated atmospheres containing from 14 to 16 percent hydrogen can also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or dissociated ammonia atmospheres. Low-temperature brazing using BAg series filler metals also is possible when hydrogen or dissociated ammonia atmospheres re used. Endothermically generated atmospheres containing from 14 to 16 percent hydrogen can also be used for properly cleaned carbon steels. Filler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Advantages Disadvantages Pack carburizing Low capital requirements Labor-intensive No atmosphere generation required Control of case depth and carbon is difficult. Direct quenching is impractical. Energy- and time-intensive due to the necessity of heating the additional mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...- and endothermically-generated gas can be used with excellent results (see the article “ Guide to Furnace Atmospheres ” in ASM Handbook , Volume 4B, Steel Heat Treating Technologies ). These require dew-point or infrared control so as not to carburize or decarburize the stainless grade being heat treated...