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empirical methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... empirical methods, application of cooling curves, computational fluid dynamics, and the inverse conduction calculation and measurement of parts. Suitable examples are also provided. quenching distortion thermal gradient heat-transfer coefficient thermal conductivity thermal diffusivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electrochemical reactivity of the electrolyte affect the metal removal rate. The most accurate method of determining removal rates is by empirical testing. The electrical current in a particular application is determined by the current density and the area of the gap between the anode (wheel) and the cathode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Abrasive finishing is a method where a large number of multipoint or random cutting edges are coupled with abrasive grains as a bond or matrix material for effective removal of material at smaller chip sizes. This article provides a broad overview of the various categories of abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes various methods of electrochemical analysis, namely coulometry, electrogravimetry, voltammetry, electrometric titration, and nanometer electrochemistry. The discussion covers the general uses, sample requirements, application examples, advantages, and limitations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... effect of viscoelasticity on the test methods used. Two common ways of evaluating viscoelasticity of plastics are by means of creep experiments and dynamic mechanical experiments. Graphic or tabular analysis of test data, time-temperature superposition, and empirical correlation methods are commonly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... transformation diagrams, and continuous cooling transformation diagrams. The primary design criteria for heat treating of steels this article covers are the minimization of distortion and undesirable residual stresses. The article presents the theoretical and empirical guidelines to understand sources of common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for cold-worked condition and for austenitic steels. Source: ASTM E 140 Fig. 1 Approximate equivalent hardness numbers for steel. Points represent data from the hardness conversion tables. Abstract Hardness conversions are empirical relationships that are defined by conversion tables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... mechanisms. It discusses the empirical projections of absolute workability from various mechanical tests. The article concludes with a discussion on extrusion and drawing process design implications. drawing mechanical testing workability EXTRUSION AND WIRE DRAWING are very analogous processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Several methods are developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, namely, meshed-solution methods such as the finite-element method (FEM), finite-difference method, and boundary-element method; and numerical algorithms consisting of so-called meshed-solution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... techniques. It introduces some common techniques for discretizing the fluid-flow equations and methods for solving the discrete equations. These include finite-difference methods, finite-element methods, spectral methods, and computational particle methods. The article describes the approaches for grid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... discusses reliable data sources as well as experimental and computational methods for material data acquisition. The article provides information on the process data needed for accurate heat treatment simulation and the methods for their determination. Methods for validating heat treatment simulations are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dynamic response of equipment. The article reviews the determination of friction coefficient using laboratory monitoring methods, indirect measurements, and the inverse method. It considers the determination of the interface heat-transfer coefficient by using the ring test and computer simulations. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... traces of water vapor for direct measurement with the Sievert's method. Combined linear regression analyses of the sets of reported data considered to be reliable yielded the following empirical equations for hydrogen solubility in liquid and solid pure sium as a function of temperature: (Eq 34...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... quantitative measurement techniques, evaluation reliability, and quantitative interpretation of nondestructive inspection methods. The common nondestructive evaluation methods, along with their uses and limitations, are summarized in a table. The article conceptually illustrates the interplay of NDE and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article summarizes some of the issues and approaches in performing computational analyses of mechanical behavior, distortion, and hot tearing during solidification. It presents the governing equations and describes the methods used to solve them. The article reviews the finite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract A wide range of flow-formed open- and close-ended shapes are currently available in a variety of difficult-to-form materials, including titanium alloys and nickel-base super alloys. This article describes the two basic methods of flow forming that are characterized by the position of...