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electroplated gold

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Gold electroplating was invented in 1840. During the first 100 years electrodeposited gold was used primarily for its aesthetic appeal as a decorative finish. This article provides a description of the gold plating process and the electrolytes used. It discusses the decorative and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... include: The electroless gold deposition rate is generally slow. The typical rate is 2 to 3 μm/h, compared to 10 or more μm/h for electroplating baths. The chemistry of electroless gold baths is complex; the baths require tight control because they are very sensitive to operating conditions as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... applications substrate material wastewater treatment COPPER ALLOYS are widely used as electroplated coatings, and they can be used with practically any substrate material that is suitable for electroplating. While alloys such as copper-gold and copper-gold-nickel are commonly electroplated, these are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Palladium has been electroplated since before the turn of the 20th century. However, it stirred little interest until the 1960s and 1970s, when the price of gold peaked, prompting a search for alternatives. Palladium plating is currently used for jewelry and electrical contacts; however, the decorative...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.../electronic applications. Decorative applications of silver plating still predominate; however, silver has been successfully substituted for gold in some functional uses in electronics. Its greatest success has been the virtually complete replacement of gold on metallic leadframes, the devices that support...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pulsed current include gold and gold alloys, nickel, silver, chromium, tin-lead alloys, and palladium. Pulsed current is also used for anodizing and, in select cases, for etching, electrocleaning, and electroforming. The advantages of pulse plating vary from one application to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... use. Gold is usually applied over an electroplated undercoating of nickel or silver, but may be electroplated directly on the copper alloy. In the electronics industry, nickel is plated to copper before gold plating. The nickel barrier stops migration of copper into the gold layer. The gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... development shows that gold can also be used as a preplate for the subsequent deposition of other metal coatings. A process for molybdenum is detailed as follows: Alkaline ferricyanide etch for 10 s at room temperature in a solution of 200 to 250 g/L (26 to 33 oz/gal) ferricyanide and 75 to 85 g/L (10 to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with different thicknesses and colors can be produced. Voltage governs the thickness of the oxide layer, which determines the color (first gold, then red, green, blue, and black with increasing thickness). This technique can be employed to decoratively color zirconium and hafnium alloys and to enhance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... monovalent ions such as silver (Ag +1 ) requires one electron per ion. Multivalent ions such as gold (Au +1 and Au +3 ) require one and three electrons per ion, respectively. In theory, one Faraday of electricity will deposit one equivalent weight of any metal: 107.868 g (3.804 oz) of silver; 196.967 g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the deposition of antimony, platinum, gold, silver, iron, copper and zinc. In publishing his experiments, in 1841, he originated the very appropriate term 'electro-metallurgy' for the process of working in metals by means of electrolysis” ( Ref 1 ). A paper published in 1930 was titled “The Production...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... intermetallic compound Ag 3 Sn. When porcelain veneers are added to gold alloys for high-grade dental restoration, 1% Sn is added to the gold alloy to ensure bonding with the porcelain. The presence of about 0.1% Sn in flake or ductile iron castings ensures a completely pearlitic structure, and this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... aluminum. Silver, gold, and rhodium provide specific electrical and electronic surface properties. Examples of applications of plated aluminum with typical finishing sequences are given in Table 19 . Table 19 Applications using electroplated coatings on aluminum products Product Form...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... appearance, important considerations for these applications include functional attributes such as humidity resistance and thermal stability. The production of printed circuit boards (PCBs) involves many manufacturing processes, including the electroless deposition of copper and gold on plastics. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... treating must be removed before most coating processes. Cast irons are most commonly plated with chromium, nickel, copper, cadmium, and zinc. In addition, gold, lead, and rhodium are used for specialized applications. Alloy coatings, such as brass, bronze, and tin-base compositions, are used for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and buffing, are reviewed. The article also explains the procedures of electrocleaning, electropolishing, electroplating, painting, surface blackening, coloring, terne coatings, and thermal spraying. It includes useful information on the surface modification of stainless steels, namely, ion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... condition Silver, gold, rhodium, and, to a lesser extent, platinum and palladium are employed in clad and electroplated contacts. Electrodeposition and cladding compete for many of the same applications. Clad overlays are favored because of their lower porosity, but electrodeposits are slightly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... coating for energy conservation. Gold-base brazing alloys are used in critical aerospace and chemical equipment applications. Electroplated gold is used for its stability in electrical applications, such as connectors, relay switches, and contacts. Gold-silver-copper alloys are used for pen nibs and for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... conditions of electrodeposition processes for chromium plating, nickel plating, iron plating, cadmium plating, zinc plating, indium plating, lead plating, tin plating, silver plating, gold plating, brass plating, bronze plating, tin-lead plating, zinc-iron plating, and zinc-nickel plating. The article also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Precious metals include gold, silver, and six platinum-group metals, namely, platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and iridium. This article focuses on the consumption, trade practices, properties, product forms, and applications of these metals and their alloys. gold...