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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... (AES). It provides information on the instrumentation typically used in the AES, including an electron gun, an electron spectrometer, a secondary electron detector, and an ion gun. The article also describes experimental methods and limitations of the AES, including elemental detection sensitivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the surface orientation is calculated to approximate {810}. 2500×. Source: Ref 45 Abstract Abstract This article outlines the beam/sample interactions and the basic instrumental design of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which include the electron gun, probeforming column (consisting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of approximately 3 Pa (2 × 10 −2 torr) Basically, the electron beam is formed (under high-vacuum conditions) by employing a triodestyle electron gun consisting of a cathode, a heated source (emitter) of electrons that is maintained at some high negative potential; a grid cup, a specially shaped electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... , American Welding Society , Miami, FL , 2007 , p 452 – 502 4. Arata Y. , Development and Application of a Strong Focusing Electron Beam Gun with Multistage Electromagnetic Accelerating Units , Plasma, Electron & Laser Beam Technology: Development and Use in Materials Processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electric field to remove electrons from a tungsten filament are termed cold-field-emission SEMs, or high-resolution SEMs, and have the highest resolution capabilities of all SEMs. A compromise is reached in the thermal-field-emission (or Schottky gun) SEM when a combination of heat and electric field...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-pressure and environmental SEMs, the design of vacuum systems has changed from a simple vacuum chamber to a multistage chamber with various levels of vacuum produced in different parts of the electron-optical column. A high vacuum is desired in the gun chamber of all SEMs to minimize filament oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...(a) Focused electron-beam sources used for evaporation processing. Bent-beam electron gun (top); long-focus gun (bottom) Fig. 8(b) Unfocused electron-beam sources used for evaporation processing. Work-accelerated gun (top); setup with magnetic confinement of electrons (bottom) Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The electron source was not tightly focused. The next commercial improvement was made by Surface Science Instruments (SSI), a spin-off of Hewlett Packard. This provided a focused electron gun to create x-rays from a small, variable spot on the anode. Thus, the x-ray energy band width could be varied from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... processes because of the control of the beam spot dwell time and distribution at the areas to be melted or maintained as liquid. In addition, unnecessary heating of the ingot pool, as occurs in vacuum arc remelting, for example, is avoided. Power losses of the electron beam inside the gun and between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscopy Features Type of electron source Tungsten hairpin LaB 6 Schottky field-emission gun Cold field-emission gun Work function, eV 4.5 2.4 3.0 4.5 Operating temperature, K 2700 1700 1700 300 Cross-over size, nm >10 5 10 4 15 3 Brightness, A/m 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... (No. 9–10 ), Sept 1938 , p 553 – 572 10.1007/BF01341584 2. Oatley C.W. , The Scanning Electron Microscope , Science Progress ( 1933 –) , Vol 54 , Science Reviews 2000 Ltd. , 1966 , p 483 – 495 3. Oatley C.W. , The Tungsten Filament Gun in the Scanning Electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...: 15× Fig. 20 Moveable electron beam welding gun assembly with wire-feed system. Courtesy of Sciaky, Inc. Fig. 19 Catalytic converter assembly consisting of seams joined by the nonvacuum electron beam welding process Fig. 15 Joint location and beam clearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... beam is generated at an electron gun and accelerated toward the sample housed inside a specimen chamber, typically below the electron-optics column. Electromagnetic lenses below the electron gun focus the electron beam to a small probe at the sample surface. Scanning coils deflect the electron probe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... spectrometer; EDS, energy-dispersive spectrometer; CRT, cathode-ray tube Fig. 3 Ray diagram illustrating lensing action. Magnification, M = S′/S Fig. 2 Conventional tungsten hairpin filament electron gun. Fig. 4 Lensing action of the three lenses of a scanning electron microscope...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... energy (Ω CuS ), kJ/mol … … Source: Ref 80 Beryllium and carbon peak positions in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy Table 1 Beryllium and carbon peak positions in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy Peak Photoelectrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals” in Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11 of ASM Handbook . Ductile Fracture Intergranular Brittle Fracture Transgranular Fracture Modes Mixed Fracture Modes This system contains an electron gun that generates electrons as well as a series...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Whether the method is controlled manually or automatically, the motion required to generate the curve is usually imparted to the workpiece, although limited motion can be imparted to some guns. Checking the location of an electron beam with respect to the joint can be done with an electronic device...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is limited by thermal conduction. Principles of Operation Basically, the electron beam is formed (under high-vacuum conditions) by employing a triode-style, electron gun consisting of a cathode—a heated source (emitter) of electrons that is maintained at some high negative potential; a grid cup...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (SEM) Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) A simplified schematic of an SEM is shown in Fig. 1 . Electrons are produced by one of several types of sources at the top microscope column. These electrons are accelerated down the column by a voltage differential in the electron gun (typically...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... A simplified schematic of an SEM is shown in Fig. 1 . Electrons are produced by one of several types of sources at the top microscope column. These electrons are accelerated down the column by a voltage differential in the electron gun (typically in the range of 1,000 to 50,000 V). The column must be kept...