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electron beam hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Electron beam hardening (EBH), with some special characteristics in comparison to other heat treatment technologies, allows beam deflection frequencies of up to 100 kHz. This article illustrates the principles of different thermal electron beam technologies, including beam-deflection...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 9 Principle of electron beam hardening as a solid-phase process. (a) Schematic and (b) example microstructure of low-alloy steel. HAZ, heat-affected zone More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 16 Classification of contours with regard to electron beam hardening. (a) Most suitable. (b) Limited suitability. (c) Unsuitable More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 22 (a) Electron beam hardening (EBH) with rotating energy-transfer field (continuous-interacting monofield technique) of (b) connecting rods. (c) Hardened zone More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 23 (a) Electron beam hardening of pump cams with the continuous-interacting monofield technique. (b) Hardness depth profile. (c) Hardness mapping in the slope area. (d) Microstructure of slope area More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 24 (a) Electron beam hardening of a shaft with the continuous-interacting multifield technique. (b) Cross section of hardened layers More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 6 Schematic of processing techniques for electron beam (EB) hardening. CI, continuous interacting More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 18 Universal-chamber electron beam machine for hardening, welding, engraving, and structuring. Chamber volume: 0.5 m 3 ; beam parameters: 60 kV, 10 kW. Courtesy of FOCUS More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 25 (a) Electron beam (EB) hardening with the multiflash monofield technique of (b) an injector box (video still). (c) Cross section of hardened layer. (d) Temperature and energy vs. time profile More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 26 (a) Electron beam (EB) hardening of a slotted shaft using the single-flash multifield technique to (b) harden positions 1 to 4 of the component, with cross section of EB-hardened layers at positions 2 and 4. (c) Hardness-depth profiles of positions 1 to 4. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., nitriding, carbonitriding, and austenitic and ferritic nitrocarburizing, as well as selective-hardening methods, such as laser transformation hardening, electron beam hardening, ion implantation, selective carburizing, and surface hardening with arc lamps. The article also discusses the factors affecting...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 15 Influence of (a) angle of electron beam (EB) incidence and (b) material thickness on the electron beam hardening (EBH) depth More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 8 (a) Surface isothermal energy transfer in the flash technique. EB, electron beam; EBH, electron beam hardening. (b) Component and energy-transfer field. Temperature-time profiles depend on distance from the surface (left axis) and time-dependent control of the beam current (right axis). More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 13 Hardness and scratch energy density for different iron-base alloys. W R , abrasive wear density; H+A, hardened + annealed; EBH, electron beam hardened More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 14 Influence of (a) load conditions and (b) carbon content on fretting fatigue for different previous heat treatments. H+T, hardened + tempered; EBH, electron beam hardened More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 10 Influence of transfer energy density, chemical composition, and previous heat treatment on electron beam hardening (EBH) depth for steels and cast iron. H+T, hardened + tempered; SA, soft annealed More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 11 Transmission electron microscopy images showing influence of carbon content on microstructure after electron beam hardening. (a) Lathlike and (b) platelike martensite More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals and applications of localized heat treating methods: induction hardening and tempering, laser surface transformation hardening, and electron-beam heat treatment. The article provides information about equipment and describes the selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... at this wavelength. One such material is colloidal graphite. Electron Beam Hardening Electron beam hardening, while not as widespread as laser hardening, also is a solid-state transformational hardening process that uses direct impingement of a highly focused electron beam to provide surface heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... hardening Series 8000, Al-Li MIG, TIG, laser, electron beam Thick sections As welded or reheated (b) Can be welded, careful choice of filler wire to avoid cracking Copper and copper alloys Tough pitch copper, deoxidized copper MIG, TIG, electron beam, resistance, MIG, MMA For arc welding...