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electromagnetic forces

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005877
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., and electromagnetic forces. differential equations electrical properties magnetic properties mathematical modeling Electromagnetic problem solutions are based on the macroscopic theory of the continuous model for the electromagnetic field (EMF). It is described by a system of integral or partial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and electromagnetic forming. These techniques are distinct from most other metal forming methods in that the explosive or electromagnetic force first accelerates the workpiece to a high velocity, and the kinetic energy of the workpiece is significant. The sheet metal workpiece then changes shape, either as it strikes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., the ceramic shield ( Fig. 4a ) and cover may be used. The melt flow is determined by electromagnetic force, which is a result of eddy current interaction induced in the melt with resultant magnetic field. The source of the EMF is the inductor-crucible ( Fig. 5a ). The melt flow also is influenced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of the process. The detachment of the melted electrode is controlled by forces acting on the liquid droplet formed by the melted electrode. Of these forces, the electromagnetic force often plays a dominant role in determining the mode of the metal-transfer process and how the detachment is completed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... with the resulting electromagnetic field (EMF) leads to electromagnetic forces (Lorentz forces) in the melt. These electromagnetic forces are responsible for two important features of induction melting: the deformation of the free melt surface and the melt flow, in the form of the typical recirculating flow pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., external force f ext in Navier-Stokes 64 consists of gravitational force f gravity and the electromagnetic force f EM : (Eq 86) f g r a v i t y = γ g (Eq 87) f E M = J × B where J is the electrical current density and B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Prog. , Vol 4 ( No. 6 ), Nov/Dec 2004 , p 19 – 23 19. “Nanocrystalline Alloy—NANO,” Magnetic Metals Corp., Anaheim, CA, www.magmet.com 20. Rudnev V. , Electromagnetic Forces in Induction Heating , Heat Treat. Prog. , July 2005 , p 25 – 28 21. “Fluxtrol Material...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... two terms on the right are the viscous shear and a pressure gradient. The last term accounts for body forces, for example, gravity and electromagnetic forces, and additional viscous terms not expressed by ∇ · (μ∇ V ) ( Ref 19 ). The central task in using Eq 19 and 20 to predict the fluid flow...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in which the induction field is arranged so electromagnetic forces push the molten metal away from the walls of the furnace, standing it up in the center of the furnace. The molten alloy contacts the furnace wall only briefly during pouring, and there is little or no reaction with the wall. Other power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., with the possibility of applying stimuli such as a rotating magnetic field to force fluid flow under microgravity conditions. The electromagnetic levitator (EML) will enable containerless melting and solidification of alloys and semiconductor samples, either under ultrahigh vacuum or high-purity gaseous atmospheres...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., and electromagnetic forces are the three driving forces for convection. Electromagnetic force is important for arc welding. Initial work by Orepar, Eager, and Szekely ( Ref 36 ) showed that even for arc welding, surface-tension-driven flow is dominant until the current level is very high (exceeding 250 A). Recently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... 2 , 1995 50. Rudnev V. and Loveless D. , Longitudinal Flux Induction Heating of Slabs, Bars, and Strips Is No Longer “Black Magic,” Part 2, Ind. Heat. , March 1995 51. Rudnev V. , Electromagnetic Forces in Induction Heating , Heat Treat. Prog. , July 2005...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... and David S.A. , Physical Processes in Fusion Welding , Rev. Mod. Phys. , Vol 67 ( No. 1 ), 1995 , p 85 – 112 Momentum Balance Technique: The Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fluid Approach Marangoni Force Buoyancy and Electromagnetic Forces Specific Heat Method Latent Heat Method...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... stirrer with a furnace is provided in Fig. 14 . The melt is stirred by the force created by the inductor to the bottom of the furnace. A variation of this mounts the stirrer on the side of the furnace. Electromagnetic stirrers typically have the highest capital and energy costs, but with no metal contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... used Lorentz force model ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ) provides the basic coupling between electromagnetic fields and the electrically conducting elastic solid or liquid. Such a treatment is valid for all nonmagnetic metals and most commercial magnetic metals when in a large applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... The resulting strong surface tension gradients along with the other driving forces for fluid flow (electromagnetic, buoyancy, etc.) result in very high velocities in small weld pools ( Ref 25 , Ref 26 , 27 ). For example, surface velocities of the order of 1 m/s were measured by Ki et al. ( Ref 27...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... partitioning during solidification cause density gradients in the liquid. Unless these density variations are stable (cooling from below and interdendritic liquid heavier than the bulk), they will cause natural convection flows in the liquid. In the absence of electromagnetic forces, and when the effects...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... substantial electromagnetic forces, yet with provision for thermal expansion. Because the magnetic field is transmitted in all directions, special vertical laminations of transformer iron, which form the magnetic yokes (shunts), are evenly spaced around the circumference of the coil to provide additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... , Int.Mater. Review , Vol 35 , 1990 , p 185 – 216 High-velocity gas motion occurs in and around the arc during welding. The gas motion is partially due to cover gas flow, but, more importantly, it is driven by electromagnetic forces associated with the arc itself. In gas metal arc (GMA) welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... important features of induction melting is the melt homogenization due to the melting stirring by electromagnetic forces ( Fig. 12 ). Depending on the melting cycles, different steering modes are possible. These are typical one-phase induction steering modes with two thyroidal flow eddies, interval steering...