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electrolytic extraction

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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 7 Titanium powder samples obtained by electrolytic reduction methods for titanium extraction from its ores. (a) A sample of crystalline morphology of “electrowon” titanium particulates. Courtesy of MER Corporation. (b) Scanning electron micrograph image of unalloyed titanium powder More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... with a warm, low-impurity electrolyte with a high concentration of metal ions. Careful process control of the supply of leveling and grain-refining agents, current density, and temperature is essential. Electrochemical Cell Both electrodes are immersed in suitable electrolytic solutions. The anode...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... a combination of pyro metallurgical and electrometallurgical steps. The iron extraction flow sheet ( Fig. 4 ) is essentially a combination of pyrometallurgical unit processes. The purity of the metal product also depends on the chosen route. Electrolytic refining as the final step in extraction yields a product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... constituents of cast and wrought heat-resistant alloys. It describes the identification of ferrite by magnetic etching. The transmission electron microscopy examination of the fine strengthening phases in wrought alloys and bulk extraction in heat-resistant alloys are included. The article also reviews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., electrolytic extraction, smelting, thermodynamic properties, electrochemical reactions ALTHOUGH ALUMINUM is a relatively young material (discovered and named in 1808), its production volume today (2018) exceeds that of all other nonferrous metals combined. More than 57 million tonnes of primary aluminum...
Book Chapter

By Bo Hu
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... for preventing iron deficiency. Fortification of wheat flour with elemental iron and vitamins was introduced in the United States and some European countries more than 70 years ago. The United States was the first country to enrich low-extraction wheat flour with iron in 1941. Iron was added, together...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... Methods such as precipitation from salt solution and gas, chemical embrittlement, hydride decomposition, and thermite reactions are also discussed. The article also discusses the methods used to produce powders electrolytically and the types of metal powders produced. The physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... number of elements or functional groups; S = under special conditions (i.e., with tandem mass spectrometer detection); D = after dissolution/extraction; V = volatile solids or components, pyrolyzed solids; C = crystalline solids. (a) AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; AFM, atomic force microscopy; COMB...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Iron has been electroplated from a variety of electrolytes, whose bath parameters result in coatings that have widely divergent characteristics according to the specific characteristics desired in the finished product. This article provides an overview of the process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... or rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells are classified into five types: phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline electrolyte fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and solid oxide fuel cell. The article presents reactions that occur during charging and discharging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... This cathodic reaction is: 2 H 2 O + O 2 + 4 e − → 4 OH − The electrochemical corrosion circuit is completed in the electrolyte (water) by the migration of ions. With increased ion content, the conductivity of water increases, and anodes and cathodes may form at greater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., they apply to all metals. For example, the grinding, polishing, and etching procedures (both mechanical and electrolytic) used for copper-base alloys would be the same as those used for copper-base alloys in the metallographic laboratory. Thus, the step-by-step techniques and the equipment used for iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... electronic copper (OFE) 99.99 (min) Cu C10200 Oxygen-free copper (OF) 99.95 (min) Cu C11000 Electrolytic tough pitch copper (ETP) 99.90 (min) Cu C12200 Phosphorus-deoxidized copper, high-residual phosphorus (DHP) 99.90 (min) Cu, 0.028 P C12500 Fire-refined tough pitch copper (FRTP) 99.88...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... − ( dis ) → M m X n ( s ) + ( n ⋅ m ) e − where M(s) is the solid metal anode, X m− (dis) is a complexing anion dissolved in the electrolyte, and m and n are integers. Equation 1 represents anode reactions where the metal is oxidized and dissolves. Complexation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... established. Current existing commercial processes include chemical reduction, electrolytic reduction, hydride/dehydride, gas atomization, plasma-rotating electrode, and mechanical alloying. These processes are described in detail by J.H. Moll and C.F. Yolton of the Crucible Research Center...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... electrode (provides stable potential and is corrosion resistant) Electrolyte solution (NaCl or body-mimicking fluid) Heating coil and thermostat if a stable temperature is required (e.g., body temperature) Fig. 8 Circuit diagram for a simple tribocorrosion setup Such a setup allows...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... layer, such as an electrodeposited metal, or an applied layer, such as paint or lacquer. It is also not a chemical conversion coating such as a phosphate or chromate conversion coating. All conversion coatings are equilibrium processes, with only the chemical potential difference between the electrolyte...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specimens that must be polished in a plane perpendicular to the rolled surface The need for connecting electrical leads to one or more specimens for subsequent electropolishing or electrolytic etching Grinding and Rough Polishing Because aluminum and its alloys are relatively soft compared...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nap cloth, such as those recommended for use with colloidal silica, should be used. If edge preservation is not critical, then a somewhat softer, medium-nap cloth, such as the popular synthetic suede cloths can be used. Electrolytic Polishing Electrolytic polishing has limited application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the fundamentals of various techniques used for the production of copper and copper alloy powders. These include atomization (water, air, and gas), oxide reduction, and electrolysis. The article discusses the effects of electrolyte composition...