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electrolytic etching

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Swab 10 to 20 s; vary HF content to increase/decrease etching activity ASTM 130 (a) 25 mL HCl, 10 mL H 2 SO 4 , 75 mL methanol Electrolytic at 30 V for 30 s; Caution: keep below 24 °C (75 °F) Caution: For all etchants that contain HF, immerse the specimen for the necessary time, rinse...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mechanical polishing and is often followed by etching. Mechanism Apparatus and Procedure Mounting of Specimens Development of Procedures for Electropolishing Advantages and Disadvantages of Electropolishing Electrolytes IN THIS SECTION, the term etchant is used in its broadest sense...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... not occur in electropolishing. Surfaces resulting from electropolishing are completely unworked by the polishing procedure. This feature is important in low-load hardness testing or x-ray studies. With some electrolytes, etching can be accomplished by simply reducing the voltage to approximately one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... steel alloy. Electrolytically etched with a (NH 4 )S 2 O 8 and H 2 O solution for approximately 1 min at 3–5 V Fig. 4 The annealed and cold-worked microstructure of a 22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel alloy. Electrolytically etched with a (NH 4 )S 2 O 8 and H 2 O solution for approximately 1 min...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and it etches faster than etch 14. Colors σ phase reddish-brown, ferrite dark-gray, austenite not attacked, carbide black. Use under a hood. 16. 10 g oxalic acid and 100 mL H 2 O Popular electrolytic etch; 6 V dc, 25 mm (1.0 in.) spacing. 15–30 s reveals carbides; grain boundaries revealed after 45–60 s; σ...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Delineating Etchants Staining Etchants Electrolytic Etching Proper sectioning of the surface to be examined is a very important step in preparing steel specimens, because in this step, the metallurgical structure of the specimen can easily be altered. Care in sectioning is necessary for all steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... parts HCl, 1 part HNO 3 Glyceregia; mix fresh, do not store; discard when solution is orange; use by immersion or swabbing 5–60 s; very popular general etch for structure of iron- and nickel-base superalloys; γ′ in relief 2. 5 mL HF, 10 mL glycerol, 85 mL ethanol Electrolytic etch at 0.04–0.15...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... etchant for pearlite. Etches some austenitic cast irons, Ni-hard, and acicular irons. Nital, 5% 5% nitric acid, 95% ethanol (1) Dip etch for 2–10 s (2) Electrolytic etch (a) (1) General-purpose etching of all ferritic gray, malleable, and ductile cast irons. Etches grain boundaries. Etches some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., bronzes, nickel silver 6. 50 mL 10–15% CrO 3 and 1–2 drops HCl Immersion; add HCl at time of use Same as above; color by electrolytic etching or with FeCl 3 etchants 7. 8 g CrO 3 , 10 mL HNO 3 , 10 mL H 2 SO 4 , 200 mL H 2 O Immersion or swabbing Grain contrast etch for electrolytic tough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 2 SO 4 to 30 g. (b) This etchant can be prepared by mixing one part (by volume) etchant 1 and three parts H 2 O. (c) Electrolytic; current density, 0.1 to 0.2 A/cm 2 (0.6 to 1.3 A/in. 2 ) for 3 to 8 s Etchants and etching times for zinc and zinc die-casting alloys Table 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Simultaneous etching while mechanical polishing Cathodic etching See ion etching . Cold etching Reveals the microstructure at room temperature and below Controlled etching Electrolytic etching with selection of suitable etchant and voltage, resulting in a balance between current and dissolved...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specimens. Etching procedures and specific uses for the various etchants are also included in Table 7 . All but two of these etchants are used by immersing or swabbing the specimen; only etchants 9 and 10 are used electrolytically. Recommended etchants and procedures for macroscopic and microscopic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Solution B: 30% aqueous solution of tartaric acid 9 6 parts perchloric acid (70%) Immerse specimen (cathode) in electrolyte; anode is platinum spiral. Etch 45–90 s at 6 V, 4 A, from a rectifier. Electrolytic etching of lead-antimony alloys containing more than 2% antimony 4 parts water 10 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Electrolytic etch (1): 80 g Na 2 CrO 4 dissolved in 420 mL of glacial acetic acid 0.03–0.05 A/cm 2 (0.2–0.3 A/in. 2 ) at 5–10 V for 5–10 min. Higher current densities can be used to shorten etching time if surface rippling or waviness is a problem. Note: This same solution can be used to polish specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... procedural problems and corrections Trouble Possible cause Suggested correction Center of specimen deeply etched No polishing film at center of specimen Increase voltage Decrease agitation Use more viscous electrolyte Pitting or etching at edges of specimen Too viscous or thick...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... investigators Solution Method Solution Method 1 Etch To stain sigma phase 8% oxalic acid 92% water Electrolytic etch 8–10 s 6 V Room temperature 5 g KMnO 4 5 g NaOH 90 mL water Immerse 10–20 s Room temperature Sigma: bright green or red to purple 2 Etch To differentiate between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in water, then alcohol and dry. General structure 14 4–5 mL HBF 4 200 mL H 2 O Electrolytic: use stainless steel cathode; specimen is anode. Use minimum etching time and voltage (less than 40 s and 20 V dc respectively). When viewed with polarized light, grains with the same orientation are colored...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... for chloride SCC. Fig. 630 : Crack on painted side of tube. Angle reveals influence of torsional stresses. Fig. 631 : Stress-corrosion cracks extending from the outside diameter of the tube (at top) toward its inner diameter. 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch; 28×. Fig. 632 : Fractured tube. Branching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
....) Extension cord Collapsible table to hold equipment Collapsible stool (a) Electrolytic polishing equipment may be required for certain steels and nonferrous alloys; see the section “Polishing” in this article. (b) Electrolytic etching procedures may be required for certain steels...