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electrolytic brightening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... reduced oxide, sometimes followed by a flash pickle to brighten; and black or dark-colored surface requiring removal of adherent oxide film or scale. The article also reviews specialized pickling operations of nickel alloys and various cleaning and finishing operations, including grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Electrodeposits of cadmium are used to protect steel and cast iron against corrosion. This article provides an overview of the surface preparation of, and brighteners used in, cyanide baths. It focuses on the anode system, current density, deposition rates, and bath temperature of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract A tin deposit provides sacrificial protection to copper, nickel, and many other nonferrous metals and alloys. Tin also provides good protection to steel. Tin can be deposited from either alkaline or acid electrolytes. This article explains the compositions and operating conditions of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Gold electroplating was invented in 1840. During the first 100 years electrodeposited gold was used primarily for its aesthetic appeal as a decorative finish. This article provides a description of the gold plating process and the electrolytes used. It discusses the decorative and...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Electroplated silver is used in both decorative and functional applications, such as engineering and electrical/electronic applications. This article explains the solution formulations and specifications of electrolytes used in silver plating. decorative applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... luster, brighteners of acetyl thiourea can be added to the electrolyte to produce bright coatings. The addition of free acid to the bath increases solution conductivity, reduces anode and cathode polarization, and prevents the precipitation of basic salts. Hard deposits and minimum edge effects result...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and a brightening action. According to a theory developed by P.A. Jacquet in 1936, smoothing is accomplished by preferential solution of the “hills” or ridges on a rough surface, such as those that result from grinding. When a rough surface is made the anode of a suitable electrolytic cell, a viscous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compounds from magnetic particle and fluorescent penetrant inspection. The cleaning processes include emulsion cleaning, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and glass bead cleaning. The article provides guidelines for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... involved in the batch, continuous, and electrolytic pickling of carbon steel components. The article describes the effects of process variables on scale removal in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It concludes with a description of pickling defects, spent pickle liquor disposal, and safety practices...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... encountered, and Hull Cell plating tests should always be used to test a given bath and evaluate new brighteners. Alkaline noncyanide baths are a logical development in the effort to produce a relatively nontoxic, cyanide-free zinc electrolyte. Approximately 15 to 20% of zinc plated at present is deposited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coatings depends on the condition of the base metal before anodizing. Dull etching decreases luster; bright etching, chemical or electrolytic brightening, and buffing increase luster, either diffuse or specular. Most of the aluminum used in architectural applications is anodized. Increase abrasion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... added to control pitting. Their function is to lower the surface tension of the plating solution so that air and hydrogen bubbles do not cling to the parts being plated. Table 2 Nickel electroplating solutions Electrolyte composition, (a) g/L Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... wrought nickels. Such deposits can be alloyed with as little as 1500 ppm Mg to counter the problem. Acid sulfate electrolytes are the industry standard for copper electroforming. Additives are usually employed for grain refining, leveling, and brightening. The mechanical property improvements achieved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... expensive than those needed for bright nickel, substantially negating the saving on metal. The addition agent system is also more complex so that electrolyte control is more difficult. At equal thickness, nickel-iron plating is less resistant to corrosion than nickel, and the higher the iron content, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... which pulse frequencies of different current densities have been superimposed on the forward and reverse envelopes With the changes that take place in the plating tank when a modulated periodic reverse pulse is impressed on the electrolyte, changes in the other operating conditions or even in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Silver can be deposited as a dull plate from cyanide solutions or as a bright plate from baths containing suitable brighteners. Details of electrolyte compositions and operating conditions are contained in the article “Silver Plating” in this Volume. Plating times for the deposition of 25 μm (1 mil) of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... such a treatment gives greater protection against corrosion by salt and humid environments. Chromic acid is used in solutions of low pH when a strong oxidant is required. Nitric acid is also a strong oxidant, and a 10 to 20% nitric acid solution is used to brighten stainless steel. For electrolytic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... paints that were stripped. Upon removal from the molten salt, the components are rinsed in water to cool them and to remove the thin film of salt residue present on the components. Additional post-treatments, such as acid brightening, neutralizing, and so on, are also commonly used to prepare the...