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electrolysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Designation of aluminum purity Table 5 Designation of aluminum purity Aluminum, % Designation Nines Process 99.50–99.79 Typical commercial purity 2N5–2N8 Conventional aluminum electrolysis cells 99.80–99.949 High purity 3N–3N5 Aluminum electrolysis cells using special...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Bismuth 0.2013 0.05 15 Antimony 0.1022 0.11 14 (a) Note reduction in analysis time compared to that shown in Table 2 . Source: Ref 6 Determination of copper using internal electrolysis Table 2 Determination of copper using internal electrolysis Mass, g Relative error...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and resintering on electrical conductivity. Source: Ref 14 Abstract Abstract This article describes the fundamentals of various techniques used for the production of copper and copper alloy powders. These include atomization (water, air, and gas), oxide reduction, and electrolysis. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., mechanical alloying, and electrolysis. Some chemical methods include reduction of oxides. This article provides information on the reliable techniques for powder characterization and testing to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of metal powders, both as individual particles and in bulk forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... plating can be defined simply as metal deposition by pulsed electrolysis, which involves using interrupted direct current to electroplate parts. This article discusses the advantages and limitations of pulsed-current plating and provides information on the process principles and control, solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...Abstract Abstract This article briefly reviews the subject of copper-base powder-metallurgy (P/M) products in terms of powder production methods (atomization, oxide reduction, electrolysis, and hydrometallurgy) and the product properties/consolidation practices of the major applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and lutetium. This article classifies the rare earth metals based on their purity level, which are designated as research grades (>99.8% pure) and commercial grades (95% - 98% pure), and describes the preparation and purification, including solid-state electrolysis. It further discusses physical, mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... NH 4 OH 8 , 35 Types of reactions in controlled-potential electrolysis and applicable Nernst equations Table 1 Types of reactions in controlled-potential electrolysis and applicable Nernst equations Type of reaction (a) Nernst equation (b) I. Oxidized and reduced species...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... H 2 SO 4 Vanadium Pt V 5+ → V 4+ V 4+ → V 5+ 1.5 M H 3 PO 4 Zinc Hg Zn 2+ ⇄ Zn(Hg) 1 M NH 4 H citrate, 3 M NH 4 OH Source: Ref 1 Types of reactions in controlled-potential electrolysis and applicable Nernst equations Table 1 Types of reactions in controlled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... are mainly influenced by carbon dioxide emissions and energy use and show that lightweight materials have advantages during utilization. However, aluminum is far worse than the others during production because electrolysis is accompanied by fluorocarbon emissions (CF 4 and C 2 F 6 ), which have a very high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... , Matiasovsky K. , and Thonstad J. , Aluminium Electrolysis: Fundamentals of the Hall-Heroult Process , Aluminium-Verlag GmbH , Dusseldorf , 1982 27. Schlechten A.W. and Natalie C.A. , Extractive Metallurgy , Metals Handbook: Desk Edition , ASM International , 1985 Mining...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... measurements at low (ideally, zero) current so that essentially no electrochemical change occurs during the process. Faraday's laws of electrolysis are involved in several electroanalytical techniques. These laws may be combined in the formulation Q = nFx , where F is the faraday constant (96,495 C/g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., discussing surface roughening, anodizing, and immersion procedures along with expected results. aluminum plating electroless deposition plating electrolysis electroplating immersion plating plating metals strike layer METALLIC PLATING on aluminum alloys has a variety of applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and the dirt is not removed easily. Every five years replace all door gasket material; keep a good seal to keep dirt out. Fig. 1 Water cooling hose with a long loop to help prevent electrolysis across the DC link Maintenance tips and points to consider regarding controls, programmable logic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... 20 2. Lawall R.M. , “A Cooperative Approach to Electrolysis Problems” National Association of Corrosion Engineers Annual Meeting , April 1948 3. von Baeckmann W. , Schwenk W. , and Prinz W. , Handbook of Cathodic Corrosion Protection , 3rd ed. , Gulf...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... Following anodizing, the ionic sites remain, providing bonding sites for dyeing and adhesives as well as a reactive surface for sealing. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 2 Effects of polarization on the substrate and initial oxidation. Electrolysis of the aqueous electrolyte at the interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
.... This yields a concentrated gallium solution from which crude gallium can be recovered by electrolysis ( Ref 7 ). Because mercury losses are significant owing to the high level of cathode agitation in the de la Bretèque process, a modification to the process was developed by Vereinigte Aluminum Werke AG...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... that as much as 90% of induction heating system problems are water related. High-conductivity water usually is the culprit; it causes cooling system and power supply erosion due to electrolysis. This reaction causes the erosion of critical copper components, and the eroded debris collects at the location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of High Purity Si Nanofiber from Metallurgical Grade Si by Molten Salt Electrorefining , Mater. Chem. Phys. , 2012 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2012.08.075 25. Orhan G. and Hapçi G. , Effect of Electrolysis Parameters on the Morphologies of Copper Powder Obtained in a Rotating Cylinder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... rate of divalent copper electrolysis compared to that of monovalent copper systems. Agitation has a dramatic effect on deposit appearance and cathode efficiency. To obtain a uniform, fine-grain deposit over a wide current density range, air agitation is required for these systems. Lack of agitation...