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electrode extension

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... mechanisms, and process variables of the GMAW process. The process variables include welding current, polarity, arc voltage, travel speed, electrode extension, electrode orientation, and electrode diameter. The major components of the basic equipment for a typical GMAW installation are discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract The electrode potential is one of the most important parameters in the thermodynamics and kinetics of corrosion. This article discusses the fundamentals of electrode potentials and illustrates the thermodynamics of chemical equilibria by using the hydrogen potential scale and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), commonly called stick or covered electrode welding, is a manual welding process whereby an arc is generated between a flux-covered consumable electrode and a workpiece. This article discusses the advantages and limitations and applications of the SMAW...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Corrosion of metallic materials is governed by electrochemical kinetics, so that the general concepts developed for studying electrochemical reaction mechanisms may be applied to corrosion. This article presents the fundamental aspects of electrode kinetics. The processes of charge...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Typical setup for electrical discharge machining. Negative (standard) polarity is shown. Positive (reverse) polarity is also extensively used. Electrode costs are often the most expensive part of an EDM operation. Material, fabrication, wear, and redressing costs must be carefully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... preferred because it provides arc cleaning of base-metal oxides ahead of the molten pool, which promotes wetting and reduces base-metal oxidation. Electrode extension is the distance between the last point of electrical contact with the contact tip and the end of the electrode. An increase in electrical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Batch furnaces and continuous furnaces are commonly used in heat treating. This article provides a detailed account of various heat treating equipment and its furnace types, including salt bath equipment (externally heated, immersed-electrode and submerged-electrode furnaces), and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Table 1 Size and capacity of electrode holders Electrode holder Rating Maximum electrode size Maximum cable size Maximum current, A Duty cycle, % mm in. Small 100 50 3.2 1/8 1 200 50 4.0 5/32 1/0 Medium 300 60 5.5 7/32 2/0 Large 400 60 6.4 1/4 3/0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., submerged-electrode furnaces, immersed-electrode furnaces, and externally heated furnaces. It discusses the important applications of various furnace designs, including the austempering of ductile iron, the hardening of tool steels, and the isothermal annealing of high-alloy steels. case hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the electrode diameter is appropriate for the application. Second, the open-circuit voltage is adjusted to give either an acceptable arc length or electrode extension. The objective is to prevent either burnback (transfer of the arc to the contact tube) or spatter caused by shorting of the molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... used electrode size. Normal electrode extension for solid SAW wire is approximately 7 to 12 times the electrode diameter. As this length increases, so does the amount of resistive heating and the melt-off rate. This ( I 2 R ) heating will create an increased drop in arc voltage and necessitate an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... contribute to high quality in an RB joint. The article discusses the classification of RB such as manual RB or automatic RB. It describes the selection of metal electrodes and filler metals for RB. The filler metals include silver alloys, aluminum-silicon alloys, and copper-phosphorus alloys. aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract The melting temperature necessary to weld materials in the gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process is obtained by maintaining an arc between a tungsten alloy electrode and a workpiece. This article discusses the advantages and limitations and applications of the GTAW process. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract Plasma arc welding (PAW) can be defined as a gas-shielded arc welding process where the coalescence of metals is achieved via the heat transferred by an arc that is created between a tungsten electrode and a workpiece. This article focuses on the operating principles and procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Plasma arc welding (PAW) can be defined as a gas-shielded arc welding process where the coalescence of metals is achieved via the heat transferred by an arc that is created between a tungsten electrode and a workpiece. This article discusses the melt-in mode and the keyhole mode of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... that can occur between the two welding electrodes. It should be noted that extensive skidding can lead to elliptical welds and/or decreased electrode life. Electrode shapes have been standardized by RWMA. Figure 1 shows the six standard face or nose shapes, identified by letters A through F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... chemical composition and microstructure of the alloy, and the external factors, including electrolyte composition, temperature, and electrode potential, on the corrosion behavior of corrosion-resistant alloys. The article also discusses the implication of changing the alloy microstructure by second-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... during service Gel electrode imaging Detecting fatigue cracks in the laboratory Liquid penetrant Inspecting structural components in the laboratory and during service Magnetic property Detecting fatigue damage in the laboratory and inspecting structural components during service Positron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Electrode classification of iron powder, titania, and low-hydrogen electrodes Iron powder content, % AWS classification Type of covering Capable of producing satisfactory welds in positions shown (a) Type of current (b) E60 series: minimum tensile strength of deposited metal in as-welded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the welding gun is characterized by the extent to which the electrode arms deflect on application of the electrode force. This is an important factor in determining weld quality and the amount of skidding that can occur between the two welding electrodes. It should be noted that extensive skidding can...