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electrochemical potential

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 1 Application of mixed-potential theory showing the electrochemical potential-current relationship for a corroding system consisting of a single charge-transfer-controlled cathodic reaction and charge-transfer-controlled anodic electrochemical reaction. β c and β a are Tafel slopes More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 2 Application of mixed-potential theory showing the electrochemical potential-current relationship for a corroding system consisting of a mass-transport-controlled cathodic reaction and a charge-transfer-controlled anodic reaction. As the fluid velocity increases from 1 to 4 More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 52 Effect of electrochemical potential on the stress-corrosion fracture path in a cold-worked AISI C-1018 low-carbon steel with a 0.2% offset yield strength of 63 MPa (9 ksi). The steel was tested in a 92- °C (198- °F) aqueous 33% sodium hydroxide solution. At a potential of E = −0.76 V More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 4 Schematic of an electrochemical cell with liquid junction potential. P, interface; V, voltmeter More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 16 Relationship between electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) and dissolved oxygen content. Data from operating reactors, with the different symbols being associated with specific plants. Source: Ref 38 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 38 Variation of electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of stainless steel as function of feedwater hydrogen concentration More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 4 Depleted regions adjacent to precipitates. These regions cause an electrochemical potential (E) difference that can promote localized corrosion at the microstructural level. More
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 8 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showing the dissolution of the aluminum matrix surrounding the Fe-rich intermetallic particles due to high electrochemical potential of these intermetallics ( Ref 7 ). The size and shape of the pits, as well as conformance of the electroplated More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 50 Stress-corrosion fractures in HY-180 steel with an ultimate strength of 1450 MPa (210 ksi). The steel was tested in aqueous 3.5% sodium chloride at an electrochemical potential of E = −0.36 to −0.82 V SHE (SHE, standard hydrogen electrode). Intergranular decohesion is more More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the operation of various methods and sensors that have been used or have the potential to be used for on-line, real-time monitoring of localized corrosion. These include the electrochemical noise (ECN) method, nonelectrochemical methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... In practice, the equilibrium state is normally never reached, so corrosion proceeds continuously. The standard electrochemical potential of metals is defined as the potential in the equilibrium state. The measurement of the electrode potential is only possible relative to that of a second electrode, so...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in crevices leads to severe restriction of mass transport, allowing large differences in concentration and electrochemical potential to develop and be maintained between the fully exposed surface and the occluded crevice region. Geometry The geometry of a crevice defines the phenomenon. The two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The metal in the galvanic couple with the lower corrosion (electrochemical) potential has its potential pulled in the positive direction by the metal that has the higher corrosion potential. This generally causes the metal or alloy with the lower potential to experience accelerated corrosion. On the other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to the rate of corrosion, such as monitoring the corrosion potential and the use of hydrogen probes. Further details on the corrosion potential, EIS, and ECN techniques are given in the article “Electrochemical Techniques for In-Service Corrosion Monitoring” in this Volume. There are differences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... localized corrosion. Electrochemical Noise (EN) Electrochemical noise (EN) is a relatively new technique that is finding increasing use alongside the more traditional electrochemical methods, both in research and the field. Electrochemical potential noise (EPN) involves monitoring small shifts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and microstructural features, characteristic for all polycrystalline materials, change the chemical potential of the surface and therefore the corrosion resistance to external ions. Grains with varying crystallographic orientation also exhibit different electrochemical potentials, depending on the atomic packing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides a general introduction to the kinetics of aqueous corrosion with an emphasis on electrochemical principles. It describes the thermodynamic basis for corrosion by determining the equilibrium potentials of electrochemical reactions from the Nernst equation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... methods, frequency modulation methods, electrochemical noise resistance, potential probe methods, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization methods, potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods, electrochemical noise (EN) methods, scratch-repassivation method, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract A potential pH diagram is a graphical representation of the relations, derived from the Nernst equation, between the pH and the equilibrium potentials (E) of the most probable electrochemical reactions occurring in a solution containing a specific element. This article describes three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of two reversible electrodes, such as copper and silver electrodes, in an electrochemical system. It provides a schematic illustration of a reversible cell with copper and silver electrodes to determine a reversible cell potential between the electrodes. An electrode becomes irreversible when...