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electrochemical module

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... This article discusses the principles and applications of various models developed for understanding the corrosion mechanism. These models include mechanistic models, including Pourbaix model, thermophysical module, electrochemical module, and ion association model; risk-based models; and knowledge models...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... methods, frequency modulation methods, electrochemical noise resistance, potential probe methods, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization methods, potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods, electrochemical noise (EN) methods, scratch-repassivation method, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... composed of species A and B. Each lamella of species A (or species B) in the film has a nearly uniform thickness λ A (or λ B ). The modulation wavelength (λ = λ A + λ B ) characterizes the imposed compositional microstructure and typically takes a value anywhere from angstroms to microns in thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and duty cycle. For example, a 1000 Hz pulse with a duty cycle of 50% has a pulse width of 0.5 ms. Process Control Microprocessor-controlled modulation of applied direct current to improve the electrodeposition process has found use in reel-to-reel selective plating, automatic tab plating, barrel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article reviews the fundamentals of electrochemical corrosion test methods. The features and requirements of the instrumentation needed for an electrochemical test are briefly discussed. The article provides a discussion on the various electrochemical techniques and tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... phenomena that are found only in electronics, namely, electrochemical migration (ECM) and conductive anodic filament formation (CAF). It describes the corrosion that takes place in metals such as copper, tin, and tin-lead alloys, which are commonly used in electronic packaging. The article also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... relatively high concentrations of dopant species are introduced in the LPCVD reactor during film growth. When PECVD is used to dope the polycrystalline silicon films in situ, the conductivity of these films can be modulated by six orders of magnitude for both p-type (by adding diborane) and n-type (by adding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., or magnetic force microscopy) ( Ref 81 – 85 ), scanning near-field optical microscopy ( Ref 86 – 89 ), scanning thermal microscopy ( Ref 90 – 92 ), scanning electrochemical microscopy ( Ref 93 ), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy ( Ref 94 – 98 ), scanning chemical potential microscopy ( Ref 91 ), scanning ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... , 89 , 90 , 91 ). The EXAFS results from the oscillatory modulation of the x-ray absorption cross section by the interference between the emitted photoelectron waves and the backscattered waves from neighboring atoms in the molecule. The EXAFS allows for determining the interatomic distances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... The article illustrates the interfacial structure of a biomaterial surface contacting with the biological environment. It describes the corrosion behavior of stainless steel, cobalt-base alloy, and titanium alloys. The electrochemical methods used for studying metallic biomaterials corrosion are also...
Book Chapter

By D.R. Crow
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of the indicator electrode, and their reduction there when the applied potential has reached characteristic values. The selection of indicator electrode material presents some problems. Prolonged accumulation of the products of reduction processes tends to alter the physical and electrochemical characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes various methods of electrochemical analysis, namely coulometry, electrogravimetry, voltammetry, electrometric titration, and nanometer electrochemistry. The discussion covers the general uses, sample requirements, application examples, advantages, and limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-current and constant-voltage power sources are listed in a table. The article describes the open-circuit voltage characteristics and power source control methods. The control methods employ either pulse width modulation (PWM) or frequency modulation (FM). arc welding constant-current power sources...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... lines can be recorded conveniently. The magnetic field can be modulated at a low frequency (20 or 400 Hz) or at a medium frequency (100 kHz). Use of field modulation permits detection and amplification at the modulation frequency, providing greater sensitivity than a direct current (dc) detection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-Chromium Alloy from Sulfate Solutions , J. Electrochem. Soc. India , Vol 38 ( No. 1 ), 1989 , p 6 – 10 14. Yoshida T. et al. , Electrochemical Behavior of Electrodeposited Iron-Chromium Alloys , Asahi Garasu Kogyo Gijutsu Shoreikai Kenkyu Hokaku , Vol 17 , 1970 , p 195 – 209 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... The article illustrates a practical tribocorrosion setup that allows a user to perform wear tests in corrosive environments under well-defined electrochemical conditions and at controlled temperature. It explains the effect of changes in electrical contact resistance on tribological mode. The article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in the intensity of the 1355 cm −1 band occurs after electrochemical oxidation and reduction of HOPG in 0.05 M sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) solution ( Ref 31 ). An additional vibrational feature at 1620 cm −1 appears after oxidation at 800 °C (1470 °F) ( Ref 37 ), mechanical polishing ( Ref 37 ), and grinding...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... modulators and displays. Besides piezoelectrics, a wide range of ceramic materials have been developed as gas, oxygen, temperature, voltage, and humidity sensors. Typically, these are based on semiconducting oxides such as TiO 2 , ZnO, modified BaTiO 3 , SnO 2 , and MgCr 2 O 4 . Because many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with specialized software is used to control all of the AFM stage functions. Common to all AFM software platforms is a module for optimizing the force sensor; a module for bringing the probe down to the surface, commonly called probe approach; and finally, a module for scanning the sample. The scanning module...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... integrity of various graphites. A similar increase in the intensity of the 1355 cm −1 band occurs after electrochemical oxidation and reduction of HOPG in 0.05 M sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) solution ( Ref 31 ). An additional vibrational feature at 1620 cm −1 appears after oxidation at 800 °C (1470 °F...