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electrical heaters

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Thermostat Metals Heating Alloys Design of Open Resistance Heaters Fabrication of Open Resistance Heaters Sheathed Heaters Service Life of Heating Elements Atmospheres Properties of Electrical Resistance Alloys Precision Resistors Resistance Thermometers Ballast Resistors...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is determined by rated electrical input, contain spool insulators around which is wound a ribbon element made of a heating alloy. In a similar alternative construction, the ribbon element is replaced by a continuous helical coil of five gage or smaller wire. Ribbon sizes for oven heaters range from 0.09...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., control systems must constantly readjust heat input so that the work temperature is maintained despite changing operating conditions. This includes the adjustment of energy input to compensate for heat losses of the furnace. electrical heaters electrical insulation heat treatment noncontact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... commences with a description of the principles of induction heating followed by a discussion on the high temperature electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties of steel, which influence the performance of induction heaters. The importance of eddy current distribution in a workpiece is explained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... mils). The coated aluminum is not dried; the wet coated metal goes directly into the furnace. Forced convection is the preferred method of heating furnaces for firing porcelain enamel on aluminum. The heat can be provided by electric-package heaters, quartz-tube electric heaters, or metal-sheath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... inlet water temperature. In a closed-circuit pressurized tower, a thermostatically controlled electric heater in the spray water sump pan turns on at a temperature of approximately 4 °C (40 °F) to prevent freezeup in cold weather ( Fig. 6 and 7 ). A float-operated valve controls the sump water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005888
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... Source: Ref 13 Fig. 13 Electrical resistivity of copper-nickel alloys at different temperatures. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 20 Schematics of conventional designs of progressive/continuous horizontal billet heaters having series/parallel coil electrical connections Fig. 21...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Fig. 1 Schematic of a typical condenser in an electric power plant. LP, low pressure Fig. 7 Utility cycle tray deaerating heater with the deaerating vessel on top of storage tank. Courtesy of Jonas, Inc. Abstract Abstract This article addresses the major heat-transfer components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... of iron powder used in oxygen scavengers and chemical reactive warmers and heaters. Metal powders used as fuels in solid propellants, pyrotechnic devices, explosives, and similar applications are reviewed. Atomized aluminum, magnesium, tungsten, and zirconium powders are also discussed. atomized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... to 80 K. Such chambers use electrical heaters for elevated temperatures and cold nitrogen gas cooling for sub-room-temperature. The cold nitrogen gas is supplied from a liquid nitrogen storage dewar. The flow of cold gas determines the cooling power and is controlled at the inlet with a variable flow...
Book Chapter

By Mark Cowell
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... and Soldering , McGrawHill , 1964 , p 225 – 250 • Skipp R. , Soldering Handbook , BSP Professional Books , 1988 , p 28 – 47 The modern soldering iron consists of an electric resistance heater, a temperature controller, and an iron-plated copper tip. Many different materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of Porcelain Enameled Iron and Steel” C 448 “Standard Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Porcelain Enamels” C 536 “Standard Test Method for Continuity of Coatings in Glassed Steel Equipment by Electrical Testing” C 537 “Standard Test Method for Reliability of Glass Coatings on Glassed Steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... , Novel High-Temperature Reliable Heaters in Plasma Spray Technology , J. Therm. Spray Technol. , Vol 15 ( No. 3 ), 2006 , p 329 – 331 10.1361/105996306X124293 31. Wang Y.-Y. , Liu Y. , Li C.-J. , Yang G.-J. , Feng J.-J. , and Kusumoto K. , Electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... slab. Slab geometry: 3.2 m wide and 0.22 m thick. Courtesy of Inductotherm Corp. Fig. 36 Multicoil induction in-line heater. Courtesy of Inductoheat, Inc. Fig. 37 Temperature profile of in-line induction heating of titanium bar with a diameter of 25.4 mm using a frequency of 30 kHz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... , Forging Industry Association, 1985 , p 300 • Davis J. and Simpson P. , Induction Heating Handbook , McGraw-Hill , U.K. , p 426 • Induction Heating for Forging Reference Guide , Forging Industry Associations, 2010 , p 93 • InductoForge Modular Induction Billet Heaters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... distillate Chemical Bayonet heaters, condensers … Aluminum chloride Concentration Chemical Bayonet heaters, condensers Condensers for HCl recovery Amino acids Digesting proteins in HCl Chemical, breweries, distilleries, food Bayonet heaters, condensers, complete plants See glutamic acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., tantalum, molybdenum, carbon, and BN/TiB 2 composite ceramics. Resistive heating of electrically conductive heater is typically by low voltage (<10 V), very high alternating current (several hundred amperes) transformer supplies. It is generally better to slowly increase the heater current than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...% offset Tensile strength Elongation in 50 mm (2 in.), % Reduction of area, % MPa ksi MPa ksi Overheated tube 97 14 146 21.2 36 69 Normally heated tube 100 14.5 197 28.5 38 82 Fig. 11 Failed brine-heater shell of ASTM A285, grade C, carbon steel. The shell fractured...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...FMEA analysis of the stop valve for a hot water heater Table 1 FMEA analysis of the stop valve for a hot water heater Failure mode Effect Local System 1. Fails closed Burner off No hot water 2. Fails open Burner will not shut off Overheats, release valve releases pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... transfer in the salt bath furnace.) Electric immersion heaters may be either resistance elements, enclosed in a tube or bayonet, or electrode configurations that rely on the conductivity and resistance of the molten salt itself to convert electrical energy to heat. Due to their higher energy...