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elastic-plastic bending

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...-plastic bending, and pure plastic bending. Sheet metal bendability is a critical factor in many forming operations. The article illustrates the derivation of two relevant bend-ductility equations. bendability bending bending stress elastic bending elastic-plastic bending flanging non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... This article discusses the stress-strain relationships, strain curvature, and stress-moment equations for elastic, noncylindrical, elastic-plastic, and pure plastic bending conditions. It also reviews the distribution of residual stress and springback. stress-strain behavior bending deformation strain...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 7 Springback of a beam in simple bending. (a) Elastic bending. (b) Elastic and plastic bending. (c) Bending and stretching More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... of large-strain, elastic-plastic deformation are treated in a simplified, intuitive way, with numerous references provided for those wishing to delve into the theoretical underpinnings in more detail. Simple bending is first considered, along with a discussion of approximations, then bending with tension...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 24 Simulated role of plasticity in springback for a draw-bend test. (a) Difference of springback angle (Δθ) for pure-elastic and elastoplastic springback simulations. (b) Differences in through-thickness stress distribution following pure-elastic and elastoplastic springback. R / t More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.9781627081931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0005723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to maximum load, Tmax maximum temperature in a cycle LEFM linear elastic fracture mechanics R = crmin /crmax, or R = (1-A)l(l +A) rcp cyclic plastic zone radius Tmin minimum temperature in a cycle M bending moment M(T) center-cracked tension specimen rP rotation factor in CTOD test, plastic TEM transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0005689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... below ductile fracture. Fracture characterized by tear- elastic calibration device. A device for use in which a material can presumably endure an ing of metal accompanied by appreciable verifying the load readings of a testing ma- infinite number of stress cycles. The value of gross plastic deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... in elastic region, where x1 is b Materials derivative (denotes rate of eu the bending ber direction. For atomic percent DASA change) exp B atmospheres (pressure) plane strain and isotropic bal American Welding Society DBMS day f bcc DBTT incremental strain F elasticity, E0= E : bct Burgers (slip) vector...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... specimen type. linear-elastic fracture mechanics elastic-plastic fracture mechanics fracture mechanics ceramics single edge notch bending testing compact tension testing double cantilever beam testing chevron notch methods double torsion method fracture toughness ceramic matrix composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... the yield stress on loading. Whether or not there is permanent plastic strain on loading, there is an elastic strain that, in linear elastic materials, is proportional to the stress through the appropriate temperature sensitive modulus. If the temperature and stress are sufficiently high creep will occur...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 10 Effect of sheet tension on springback for an elastic, perfectly plastic constitutive equation for low-strength steel. (a) Constant thickness. (b) Changing thickness. r , radius of curvature after springback; R , radius of primary bending curvature; t , sheet thickness; E , Young's More
Image
Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 8 Effect of sheet tension on springback for an elastic, perfectly plastic constitutive equation for low-strength steel. (a) Constant thickness. (b) Changing thickness. r, radius of curvature after springback; R, radius of primary bending curvature; t, sheet thickness; E, Young's modulus More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Evaluation From these test results, J is evaluated from the load-versus-loadline displacement record. The J is calculated from a linear combination of an elastic term and a plastic term given as: (Eq 7) J = J e1 + J p 1 K 2 ( 1 − ν 2 ) E + η p1 B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... used in the technique described above were vibrated electrostatically, and Young's modulus was obtained from the observed natural frequency ( Ref 10 ). The beam-bending method is well suited for the determination of elastic and some plastic properties of freestanding films. The principal drawback...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... The CTOD standard uses the same bend and compact specimens that are used in the J Ic test; thus the same loading fixtures are used. The method requires measurement of load and displacement during the test. The formulas for δ calculation use a combination of an elastic and a plastic component for δ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... σ 0 R E · t × 100 where σ 0 is the tensile yield stress, E is elastic modulus, and t is thickness. A higher-order term occurs for elastic-perfectly plastic springback (Eq 12 and 13 in the article “Springback” in this Volume), but this additional term is not a significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., and the range of plastic strain is used as a measure of the severity of fatigue “loading.” On the other hand, cracks begin to appear quite late in cyclic life (90–99%) in the very low-strain, elastically dominated, high-cycle life regime. There is a gradual transition between these two extremes of behavior...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stress to a design engineer, resistance to scratching to a mineralogist, and resistance to cutting to a machinist. Although these various definitions of hardness appear to differ significantly in character, they are all related to the plastic flow stress of the material. Table 1 lists the major...