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effect of momentum

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of an optimized gating system will be made easier by the application of several fundamental principles of fluid flow. The article illustrates the Bernoulli's theorem, the law of continuity, and the effect of momentum. Most casting alloys are subject to the presence of particles that can deleteriously affect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0007039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Sputtering is a nonthermal vaporization process in which atoms are ejected from the surface of a solid by momentum transfer from energetic particles of atomic or molecular size. Ionized gases in plasma nitriding chambers often possess enough energy to sputter atoms from workload...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract This article illustrates the momentum-trapping scheme in the incident bar and stress-reversal technique which is used to change the strain rate during the course of Hopkinson bar compression or tension experiments. It describes techniques to recover the sample after it has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., advection, and diffusion of mixture composition ( C ¯ ), which gives rise to the two “source terms” on the right. Mass and Momentum Conservation While attention typically is turned first to the prediction of the transport of heat and species, because these effects directly control...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and tractable mixture models. Basic Equations for Mass and Momentum Conservation While attention typically is turned first to the prediction of the transport of heat and species, since these effects directly control the microstructure and final quality of a cast part, the prediction of velocity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ). The only remaining detail in the momentum equation is the Boussinesq approximation of the gravity-force term. It is assumed that the reference density of the liquid, ρ L , is known at a reference temperature, and the effect of each element and the temperature on the density of the liquid is linear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of fluid dynamic equations for properties of fluids, fluid statics, fluid motion, dimensional analysis, and boundary layer flow. It presents equations for analyzing problems in fluid mechanics, continuity equation, momentum equation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... indentation testing reveals a significant effect of loading rates on the hardness and the induced plastic zone size in metals and on the hardness and induced crack sizes of brittle materials. The article also explains the rebound and pendulum methods for dynamic hardness testing. metals ceramics split...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... “fully developed flow and insignificant entrance effects” is widely used while developing process models for polymer and polymer composites processing. This assumption is again related to the rate of momentum transfer. The higher the kinematic viscosity, the faster the momentum transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...-pressure shock through impact and subsequently recovered for the purpose of allowing postmortem metallurgical evaluation of the effects of the shock straining on the microstructure of a material. This technique, which introduced the use of impedance-matched radial momentum trapping rings, as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... for accurate model setup as well as model validation. Model simulations: Once the model has been validated, it can be used to simulate different “what-if” scenarios of the quenching operation. The simulation could generate information on the effect of changes—in the quenching tank; process parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... so that it can be analyzed for any changes in its microstructure. This is achieved in the normal plate impact mode by using an impedance-matched momentum trap behind the specimen ( Ref 1 , 7 , and 11 ). Ideally, the momentum-trap plate captures the momentum of the loading pulse and flies away...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article begins with balance equations for mass, momentum, energy, and solute and the necessary boundary conditions for solving problems of interest in casting and solidification. The transport phenomena cover a vast range of length and time scales, from atomic dimensions up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to separate mathematics that are correct from mathematics that represent a useful model for a particular weld. Although this point is often not understood, those who can appreciate it are able to use models more effectively. Modeling of Welds The first assumption should be that the weld has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... in the modeling of welds and other areas arises from a failure to separate mathematics that are correct from mathematics that represent a useful model for a particular weld. Although this point is often not understood, those who can appreciate it are able to use models more effectively. Modeling of Welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article presents the governing equations for moving a solidification front, based on the balance of mass, momentum, energy, and solute. It reviews how material properties and geometry can be analyzed in the context of the governing equations. The article provides several example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract High-velocity gas motion occurs in and around the arc during welding. This article describes the phenomena of gas flow in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The effect of trace element impurities on GTA weld penetration of selected alloys is presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...) Re = ρ u max w μ > 600 In a turbulent weld pool, the fluctuating velocity components increase the rates of heat and momentum transport in the weld pool. The enhanced rates of transport can be accounted for in the numerical model by taking “effective” values of viscosity...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for tools, dies, etc. Effect much deeper than original implantation depth. Precise area treatment, excellent process control Ion plating, ARE RT-0.7 T m of coating. Best at elevated temperatures Moderate to good Ion plating: Al, other metals (few alloys) ARE: TiN and other compounds Electronic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... techniques in quench tank agitation to establish uniformity of the quenched part. Common techniques include quenchant stirring, quenchant circulation, and submerged jet/spray mixing. The article also describes the effect of quenching agitation and reviews heat-transfer characteristics of immersion quenching...