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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes some of the common elemental composition analysis methods and explains the concept of referee and economy test methods in failure analysis. It discusses different types of microchemical analyses, including backscattered electron imaging, energy-dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... testing requirements is provided. Four major engine oil requirements for modern powertrain systems are: Increased fuel economy: This must be maintained throughout the oil-change interval Enhanced oil robustness: This applies to spark-ignited internal combustion engines and is necessary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...” that will result. Fatigue testing can vary from a few preliminary tests to elaborate, sophisticated programs. In support of deriving the necessary data in the best manner, the principal author identifies three critical aspects of testing programs as the three E's of testing: efficacy, efficiency, and economy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., is considered the easiest and most direct of the five methods and has the broadest application to engineering economy problems. Many industries refer to this method as the discounted cash flow method of analysis. This method is often used to test the results of other methods of analysis. Therefore, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... optimization and simulation. Areas in which CAE tools have become invaluable include vehicle dynamics and crashworthiness simulations. Crash safety is driven by engineering standards and government regulations internationally and is expensive to validate due to the number of vehicles that must be tested...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...) Corrosion costs not determined Fig. 6 Corrosion costs in production and manufacturing Fig. 7 Nonlinear extrapolation of cost of corrosion to entire U.S. economy Fig. 8 Impact of corrosion on the U.S. economy Fig. 3 Corrosion costs in infrastructure Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... directions may yet be superior to those in products not wrought—that is, in cast ingots or in forging stock taken from ingot only lightly worked. The square rolled section shown schematically in Fig. 1(a) is anisotropic with respect to average mechanical properties of test bars such as those shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Devlin M.T. , Lam W.Y , and McDonnell T.F. , “Critical Oil Physical Properties that Control the Fuel Economy Performance of General Motors Vehicles,” SAE Paper 982503, International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition , Oct 19–22, 1998 ( San Francisco, CA ) 11. Chevron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The National Safety Council publishes many codes that contain recommended practices for reducing the frequency and severity of industrial accidents. Underwriters' Laboratories (UL) prepares hundreds of detailed product safety standards and testing procedures that are used to certify that the product meets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
...., Mechanical Testing , Institute of Metals, London, 1988 18. Mechanical Testing , Vol 8 , ASM Handbook (formerly Metals Handbook , 9th ed. ), American Society for Metals , 1985 19. Sorby H.C. , J. Iron Steel Inst. , 1886 , p 140 20. Sorby H.C. , J. Iron Steel Inst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... Brazil Source: Ref 4 One other important consideration is the domestic consumption and production of the metals needed for the U.S. economy. Table 3 gives information on this factor for all 18 elements. It should be noted that in 1988 foreign purchases were required for the four elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... shaped aggregates. Malleable iron and ductile iron are used for some of the same applications in which ductility and toughness are important. In many cases, the choice between malleable and ductile iron is based on economy or availability rather than on properties. Production of malleable iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... such as chemicals. Recycled scrap is a major raw material for the metals industry, supplying up to 100% of the feedstock for some products. Consequently, the scrap metal recycling industry is very important to the economy, providing tens of thousands of jobs across the United States. In addition, the significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of 50 to 60%. Because the weight reduction is unsprung, it also reduces inertial forces, providing an additional benefit in fuel economy. In addition, lightweight MMC rotors provide increased acceleration and reduced braking distance. It is reported that, based on brake dynamometer testing, MMC rotors...
Book Chapter

By Roy E. Beal
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., as well as high-rate production situations. Therefore, the parts joined by dip soldering vary from individually designed products to mass-produced items. Dip soldering is ideal for the production of prototype engineered products, which are often made for test purposes. The process also can be used to join...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forgings that can be used net forged. No-draft forging entails increased forging costs, and whether the advantages of the process justify these costs and result in overall economy depends on the service requirements of the forged part—particularly requirements related to patterns and magnitude of stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ductility and toughness because of its combination of nodular graphite and a low-carbon metallic matrix. Consequently, malleable iron and ductile iron are suitable for some of the same applications requiring good ductility and toughness and the choice between them is based on economy rather than properties...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The economies that can be realized through combining of operations should always be considered when setting up a piercing operation. In addition, combining piercing with other operations is often a means of carrying out a greater amount of work with a limited number of presses. In combining piercing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... thermal expansion 20.4 μm/m °C · from 20–100 °C 21.4 μm/m °C · from 20–200 °C 22.4 μm/m °C · from 20–300 °C Table 3 Alloy 413.0 typical mechanical properties of separately cast test bars Property 413.0-F Sand cast 413.0-F PM cast Tensile strength, MPa (ksi) 170–195 (25–28) 165...