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dual-ion-beam sputtering

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... collide with electrons from the substrate and become ions. They impinge on the substrate in ionic form, pick up electrons, and return to the atomic state, forming the coating. Figure 5 shows a schematic of the ion plating process with a resistance heated vaporization source. Electron beam evaporation is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... DIBS dual-ion-beam sputtering DIN Deutsche Industrie-Normen (German Industrial Standards) DLC diamondlike carbon dL / dX loading rate dpa displacements per incident atom DPH diamond pyramid hardness (Vickers hardness) e natural log base, 2.71828; charge of an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... modification, or a variety of other tasks, which are discussed later. However, the more common configuration today (2019) is the FIB-SEM (also known as dual beam or cross beam). These instruments are a combination of an FIB and an SEM in which the ion beam and the electron beam are nominally coincident, that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... typically do use toxic gases for production of ion beams, and chlorine gas is sometimes used for producing heavy metal ion beams. However, implanters using a MEVVA, high-temperature, or sputtering heavy ion source do not require the use of toxic gases. The use of high voltages for ion acceleration and ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... internal standard, and the concentration of the matrix element can be approximated to 100%. Then, c IS = 1, and c X can be directly determined as: c X = I X I IS RSF X = IBR X · RSF X where IBR is the ion beam ratio. The RSFs can be measured on different days by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... stages, and automated SEM control enabled significant advances in high-throughput analysis. Focused ion beams were combined with SEM to produce dual-beam instruments. Specially designed SEMs, called variable-pressure/environmental SEMs, are equipped with differential pumping so the specimen chamber can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., etc. 0.2–10 nm 10–80 pm Broad usage in research and development of nanomaterials and applications of nanotechnology and micromanufacturing that involves understanding, characterization, and manipulating surfaces at atomic or nanometer scale Secondary ion mass spectroscopy Ion beam Secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... quadrupole; high-resolution magnetic sector; and time-of-flight, with quadrupole being the most commonly and widely used. An ion detector is a structure or device that multiplies incident charges and converts an incident or impinging ion beam emerged from a mass analyzer into an amplified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... general features of ductile and brittle fracture modes. fractography fracture modes scanning electron microscopy specimen preparation THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE has unique capabilities for analyzing surfaces. A beam of electrons moves in an x - y pattern across a conductive specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface topography is adequate for EDS. Instead of selecting a region of interest for a static x-ray dot map, the new systems allow for dynamic exploration of a sample because the software color-codes each element on the basis of characteristic x-rays. Dual-beam electron/ion beam systems, or focused ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conventional steels. The most common application techniques include sputter coating and ion beam deposition, respectively. The effectiveness of these coatings is sensitive to application conditions (temperature, substrate preparation, etc.) as well as coating thickness. Physical vapor deposition coatings...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... laboratory furnaces or small pilot plant furnaces. Stabilized zirconia is an extremely refractory oxide that conducts electricity via the transport of oxygen ions. It has to be preheated to 1000 to 1200 °C (1830 to 2190 °F) using an auxiliary furnace (often using MoSi 2 or LaCr 2 O 4 heating elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reaction occurs in which hydrogen gas is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ): (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → Zn Cl 2 + H 2 Because the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in a simplified form...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... uses the flow of carbonate ions to sustain the oxidation reaction. In operation, hydrogen and carbon monoxide are fed through the porous anode (3 to 6 μm pores, 65% porosity) to react with carbonate ions at the electrolyte interface to form water, carbon dioxide, and free electrons. The electrons are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... exceptional. Possible reactions may take many forms, but two are important. In acidic solutions, exchange can readily occur between H + ions exposed to the surface of the glass and alkali ions in the glass. This ion exchange often results in the formation of an iridescent, soluble layer on the glass surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., and deformation. Typical fillers include glass, carbon, graphite, bronze, and molybdenum disulfide. Ionomers are advanced thermoplastic resins that contain metal ions in addition to organic-chain molecules. These ions, which in most commercial products are either sodium or zinc, serve as...