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droplet transfer modes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the: total heat transferred to the base metal; partitioning of heat transfer between the arc and the molten electrode droplets; transfer modes of the droplets; role of the arc in droplet transfer; and simple model for welding procedure development based on an understanding of heat and mass transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... between the arc and the molten electrode droplets Transfer modes of the droplets Role of the arc in droplet transfer Simple model for welding procedure development based on an understanding of heat and mass transfer to the base metal Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Procedure Development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... N.M. , and Smartt H.B. , Detection of Metal-Transfer Mode in GMAW , Recent Trends in Welding Science and Technology , Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Trends in Welding Research , David S.A. and Vitek J.M. , Ed., May 14–18, 1989 ( Gatlinburg, TN ), ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Typical sequence showing the impinging of droplets, weld pool dynamics, and temperature distribution (side view). Adapted from Ref 83 Fig. 13 Sequence of temperature distributions showing droplet generation, detachment, transfer in the arc, impingement onto the weld pool, and weld-pool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... spot can be achieved if the donor film is kept below 1 μm. Droplet-mode LIFT, on the other hand, can produce transfers with feature sizes smaller than the laser spot, thus enabling extremely high printing resolutions ( Ref 15 ). Droplet-mode LIFT can be achieved with thin donor films ( t ~ L th...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... by forces acting on the liquid droplet formed by the melted electrode. Of these forces, the electromagnetic force often plays a dominant role in determining the mode of the metal-transfer process and how the detachment is completed. The primary variable that controls the electromagnetic force is the welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... transverse magnetic field. Fig. 11 Plot of GMA weld penetration in mild steel for spray transfer mode versus momentum of droplet stream. Source: Ref 16 Currents commonly employed in submerged arc welding (SAW) are much higher than those used in GTAW or GMAW. Submerged arc welding currents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Recommended shielding gas selection for gas metal arc welding Material Thickness Transfer mode Recommended shielding gas Advantages and limitations mm in. Carbon steel <2.0 <0.080 Short circuiting Ar-25CO 2 Good penetration and distortion control to reduce potential burnthrough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the weld puddle. In the spray-transfer mode of GMAW, small additions of oxygen enhance the range over which this spatterless form of welding can be performed. The droplet size decreases and the number of drops transferred per unit time increases as oxygen is added to the blend. Carbon dioxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... for spray transfer mode versus momentum of droplet stream. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 12 Schematic showing typical flow pattern in a submerged arc weld pool. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 2 Schematic showing surface fluid flow (top) and subsurface fluid flow (bottom) in the weld pool. (a) Negative...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in distortion of the droplet when it hits the surface. Fig. 7 Water-mass-flux effect on heat-transfer coefficient. Source: Ref 40 Sengupta et al. ( Ref 41 ) found that vapor film boiling in steel continuous casting is the dominant heat-transfer mode, and it is preferred because its heat-removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... heating and by arc heating similar to that of the GTAW process. The transfer of material to the workpiece can be globular, such that the metal is deposited in droplets, the diameters of which are greater than that of the electrode, or in a spray, in which mass is transferred to the weld puddle as droplets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... beam microwelding fluid flow heat flow high energy density beam laser beam laser beam microwelding laser droplet welding laser spike welding melting microjoining microjoints microwelds postweld metrology SHADOW welding solidification MICROJOINING with high energy density beams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... low, stress transfer at points of fiber fracture will be inadequate, causing the growth of flaws which reduce strength. Changes in the failure modes resulting from the change in fiber-matrix adhesion may have an effect on the longitudinal tensile strength. On the other hand, in the case of transverse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...-circuiting, globular, and spray transfer. Due to the fast travel speeds used in penetration-mode HLAW, spray transfer or pulsed GMAW are typically used. In pulsed mode, the GMAW power supply provides a controlled electrical output that pulses the welding current to detach individual droplets with each peak...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... transfer between the beam and the workpiece has been described as conduction-mode welding. In actuality, there exists a more gradual transition between the conditions shown in Fig. 7 nd 9 based on the material thermal and physical properties as well as the intensity distribution of the source energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... for various atomization methods ( Ref 5 ), the basic mechanism in water atomization appears based on momentum transfer, where the metal stream is broken up under the impact from water droplets ( Fig. 6 ). Droplet formation by impact rather than shear was first proposed by Grandzol and Tallmadge for water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... machines having the best in class efficiency. Clearly the scale of the machines involved vary with the power generated. Wear related damage occurs through different modes, including fretting, impact, solid particle and liquid droplet erosion and high-speed rub between moving and stationary parts (see...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... SMAW Fluxes Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Inclusion Formation Metal Transferability during Pyrochemical Reactions Shielding Gas As indicated in the section “Metal Transferability During Pyrochemical Reactions” in this article, the transfer of alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... If emulsions are used, the composition, the emulsifier, and the droplet dimensions are important. Despite all this complexity in the behavior at the interface, it is common to represent friction and heat transfer as simple coefficients. This is done because only a limited accuracy of prediction is needed...