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droplet transfer modes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... heat transferred to the base metal; partitioning of heat transfer between the arc and the molten electrode droplets; transfer modes of the droplets; role of the arc in droplet transfer; and simple model for welding procedure development based on an understanding of heat and mass transfer to the base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... between the arc and the molten electrode droplets Transfer modes of the droplets Role of the arc in droplet transfer Simple model for welding procedure development based on an understanding of heat and mass transfer to the base metal Heat Transfer The total transfer of heat, H...
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Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 5 Spray transfer mode in gas metal arc welding of steel. (a) Schematic showing transfer of electrode material droplets onto cathode base metal. (b) High-speed photograph of spray metal transfer mode More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 4 Spray transfer mode in gas-metal arc welding of steel. (a) Schematic showing transfer of electrode material droplets onto cathode base metal. (b) High-speed photograph of spray metal transfer mode More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 11 Plot of GMA weld penetration in mild steel for spray transfer mode versus momentum of droplet stream. Source: Ref 16 More
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Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 11 Plot of gas metal arc weld penetration in mild steel for spray transfer mode versus momentum of droplet stream. Source: Ref 18 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... detachment is specifically referred to in this section. The droplet is transferred into the base metal through three major modes/types described subsequently: short-circuiting, globular, and spray transfer. There are two major established theories for when and how the droplet is detached: pinch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... for conduction-mode laser and electron beam welding. Heat transfer in keyhole-mode laser and electron beam welding is much more complex. Similar to the handling of heat transfer from metal droplets in GMAW, heat transfer from the keyhole can be either simulated directly or approximated using a volumetric heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... if the donor film is kept below 1 μm. Droplet-mode LIFT, on the other hand, can produce transfers with feature sizes smaller than the laser spot, thus enabling extremely high printing resolutions ( Ref 15 ). Droplet-mode LIFT can be achieved with thin donor films ( t ~ L th ) at low fluences and occurs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in distortion of the droplet when it hits the surface. Fig. 7 Water-mass-flux effect on heat-transfer coefficient. Source: Ref 40 Sengupta et al. ( Ref 41 ) found that vapor film boiling in steel continuous casting is the dominant heat-transfer mode, and it is preferred because its heat-removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001481
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... by joule heating and by arc heating similar to that of the GTAW process. The transfer of material to the workpiece can be globular, such that the metal is deposited in droplets, the diameters of which are greater than that of the electrode, or in a spray, in which mass is transferred to the weld puddle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the stability of the arc and affect the type of metal transfer obtained. Metal droplet size is decreased, and the number of droplets transferred per unit time increases as the level of oxygen in the shielding gas increases. Oxygen reduces the molten weld-bead surface tension, promoting better bead wetting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the fluidity of the weld puddle. In the spray-transfer mode of GMAW, small additions of oxygen enhance the range over which this spatterless form of welding can be performed. The droplet size decreases and the number of drops transferred per unit time increases as oxygen is added to the blend. Carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of the electrode is governed primarily by joule heating and by arc heating similar to that of the GTAW process. The transfer of material to the workpiece can be globular, such that the metal is deposited in droplets, the diameters of which are greater than that of the electrode, or in a spray, in which mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... by applying a varying transverse magnetic field. Fig. 11 Plot of GMA weld penetration in mild steel for spray transfer mode versus momentum of droplet stream. Source: Ref 16 Submerged Arc Welding Currents commonly employed in submerged arc welding (SAW) are much higher than those used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... nature and effects are quite limited. In the spray transfer mode, the impact of the stream of droplets from the electrode on the weld pool forms a substantial depression or crater. This is the mechanism responsible for the typical fingerlike penetration observed with argon as the torch gas. Thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006858
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
..., flexography printing, and gravure printing. Noncontact printing methods include extrusion printing, droplet printing, laser-based polymerization, and laser-based cell transfer. The wide variety of printable biomaterials, such as DNA, peptides, proteins, lipids, and cells, also are discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., and variations in the welding procedure that may induce changes in the droplet-transfer mode. A real-time monitoring system was developed that measures process stability and infers weld quality. In Ref 20 , a process signature using arc voltage and wire feed rate is established to monitor arc start instability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., spray transfer or pulsed GMAW are typically used. In pulsed mode, the GMAW power supply provides a controlled electrical output that pulses the welding current to detach individual droplets with each peak current pulse. Because of the advanced control provided by newer GMAW power supply technologies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... selection of surface treatments for surface structural and chemical modification; the use of surface finishes and/or sizes to ensure thorough wetting and protection of the fiber; creation of interphases with desirable stiffness, toughness, and failure modes; and quantitative and qualitative characterization...