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droplet size

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Erosion of a solid surface can be brought about by liquid droplet impingement (LDI), which is defined as "progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to erosion by liquid droplets." In this article, the emphasis is placed on the damage mechanism...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process that always produces a wide range of droplet diameters. The article schematically illustrates typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization. It also illustrates the changes in solid fraction during the spray casting...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article focuses on the significant fundamental powder characteristics, which include particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, and powder purity, followed by an overview of general and individual powder production processes such as mechanical, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-temperature flame (e.g., oxy-acetylene), a broad distribution of droplet sizes containing varied amounts of the metal analyte resulted in excessive measurement variations ( Ref 3 ). This negatively impacted achievable limits of detection. Additionally, the geometry of these flames yielded effective path...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition. ceramic powders ceramic processing additives...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ejected from a surface by momentum transfer from an energetic bombarding species of atomic/molecular size. It uses a glow discharge or an ion beam to generate a flux of ions incident on the target surface. This article provides an overview of the advantages and limitations of sputter deposition. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... important properties to characterize powders, namely the particle size, surface area, density, porosity, particle hardness, compressibility, green strength, and flowability. For characterization of powders, both individual particles and bulk powders are used to evaluate their physical and chemical...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... can differ in nucleating potency. This has been examined in droplet studies where individual particles can be isolated into separate droplets ( Ref 37 , 38 ). Fig. 18 Micrograph of an Al-6Ti master alloy illustrating the range of size and shape of Al 3 Ti particles The blocklike crystals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of fluid through a tiny orifice at the spray gun nozzle, which builds up pressure. This pressure is released on the opposite side of the spray nozzle as the fluid exits the nozzle. This causes the fluid to atomize, or to break up into tiny-sized droplets. For perspective, residential water supply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article illustrates the use of carbon restoration on decarburized spring steels. Different geometric models for carbide formation are shown schematically. The article also describes the different microstructural features such as grain size, microcracks, microsegregation, and banding. carbides...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., separators, and flotation devices that are used for particle size reduction, separation of particles according to their settling rates in fluids and dewatering of concentrate particles. It explains the basic principles, flow diagrams, ore concentrate preparation methods, and equipment of major types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics, and their derivatives, that is, inorganic-organic hybrids, in the forms of solid or porous bodies, oxide layers/coatings, and particles with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers, or even millimetres. These include inert...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article reviews a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-coated pan in which holes have been drilled. Droplet size is controlled by the opening dimension in the distribution pan and its position relative to the water stream. Ovality is controlled by the cooling water stream velocity. Granules are produced by the deposition of molten aluminum droplets on a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... errors. The peristaltic pump injects the analyte into a micrometer-sized capillary inlet (the nebulizer inlet), whereby a high-velocity argon gas flow is injected to atomize the electrolyte into fine droplets ranging from 0.1 to 100 μm in diameter. This aerosol is subsequently introduced to the spray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and a small amount of emulsifiable oil in water forming a translucent, stable emulsion of a small droplet size. Extreme pressure additives are usually included, permitting their use for moderate- and heavy-duty machining and grinding applications. Chemical (synthetic) fluids are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... chemical composition of the lubricant, the additives and their concentration in the base oil, and the molecular chain length, density, viscosity, and its dependence on both temperature and pressure should be precisely described. If emulsions are used, the composition, the emulsifier, and the droplet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... hardness profile of the quenched samples. Vafaei et al. measured the contact angle of nanofluid sessile droplets and showed that the contact angle depends strongly on nanoparticle concentration, and for the same mass concentration, smaller-sized nanoparticles lead to larger changes in contact angle ( Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extremely fine droplets of varying diameters distributed spatially. It is almost impossible to measure individual droplet size and distribution. The lubricant contains many surfactants and binders that change the droplet surface energy, rheology, physics, and thermodynamics. The lubricant contains fine...