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droplet atomization

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Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process that always produces a wide range of droplet diameters. The article schematically illustrates a typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization. It also explains the changes in solid fraction during the spray casting...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 37 Scanning electron micrographs of atomized droplets of martensitic stainless steel. (a) and (b) Dendritic structures. (c) and (d) Cellular structures. Source: Ref 19 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... metric tons/year. Atomization has become the dominant mode of powder production because high production rates favor economies of scale and because prealloyed powders can be produced only by atomization. Atomization is simply the breakup of a liquid into fine droplets. Any material available in liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and centrifugal atomization, ultrasonic or pulsed atomization, melt spinning with attrition, and mechanically alloying. Gas atomization is used for several applications. In gas atomization, a high-velocity gas jet disintegrates molten aluminum into droplets that solidify to form the powder. In the Alcoa...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 5 (a) Typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization, with superimposed assumed boundaries between solid, mushy, and liquid droplets at the point of deposition during spray casting. (b) The same log-normal droplet More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 8 Simulated (upper row) and experimental (lower row) microstructures of atomized Al-10Cu (mass%) droplets with various droplet diameters: (a) 40 μm, (b) 100 μm, (c) 200 μm, and (d) 100 μm. Here (a), (b), and (c) indicate the microstructures shown in two-dimensional cross section and three More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the analyte atom distribution within each aerosol droplet was required to provide a more uniform time-dependent atomic absorption signal. To achieve this result, an alternate approach to sample introduction than the direct-insertion technique was developed, that is, a spray chamber. This enabled introduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... methods for metallic powders are introduced. Gas Atomization Figure 1 shows the basic schematics of the gas atomization process ( Ref 5 ). The metals are heated to melt in a crucible with a nozzle. Molten metal drops downward from the nozzle and is blown by gas to form liquid droplets...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... atoms) the fine sample droplets produced by the nebulizer. Next is the monochromator, which isolates a wavelength of light characteristic of a particular quantized transition between electronic energy levels of the outer electrons of the selected analyte element. The third component is the light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Excellent as a corrosion-resistant bond coat Service up to 850 °C (1560 °F) Can be postcoat heat treated for improved performance MCrAlY alloys (iron base) Fe 24Cr 8Al 0.5Y Gas atomized Very high oxidation and erosion resistance For water droplet erosion protection in steam turbines, high oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... flow, termed the nebulizer or carrier gas, to create a low-pressure zone into which sample solution is drawn or pumped through a capillary tube and subsequently atomized into fine droplets of varying sizes by the force of the flowing gas. The size distribution of the droplets generally ranges from 0.1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... When the oxide layer is very thin (on the order of one atom layer), emission occurs via a tunneling mechanism through the film to an emitting site. Thicker oxide films exhibit locally conducting spots at the end of filamentary channels through the oxide. Large currents flow in these channels, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... <xref rid="a0006647-ref30" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 30)</xref> The peristaltic pump injects the analyte into a micrometer-sized capillary inlet (the nebulizer inlet), whereby a high-velocity argon gas flow is injected to atomize the electrolyte into fine droplets ranging from 0.1 to 100 μm in diameter. This aerosol is subsequently introduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of the degree of particle melting achieved in flight. In electric-arc-sprayed coatings, the lamellar microstructures are also typical and indicate that the atomized droplets had not yet solidified prior to impact. The degree of melting in the coating structure, as indicated by these lamellae, largely determines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... atomized pneumatically, a dual-phase flow of droplets and air affect the surface-cooling process during spraying and should not be neglected ( Ref 17 ). The relationship between the work required to form many new droplet surfaces (W), the surface tension of the solution (σ), and the newly formed surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... be noted that the different jetting regimes may result in different patterns upon deposition, from a single droplet to a heavily atomized area formed by microdroplets. The Rayleigh and first-wind-induced break-up regimes are of main interest during LIFT-assisted printing processes due to their deposition...
Book Chapter

By Bo Hu
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... molten iron stream into fine droplets by high-velocity waterjets. The atomized iron powder has a solid and irregular particle structure so that it has high apparent density and good flowability. Hence, high-density PM components can be achieved using this type of iron powder. Reduced iron powders...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to accomplish this ( Ref 4 ). A liquid droplet is melted in a nonreactive crucible under an inert atmosphere. The droplet is suddenly subjected to an acoustical shock wave that both atomizes and accelerates the atomized droplets against a cold copper surface at ambient temperature. The individual atomized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... considering the free surface flow under metal droplet impact. These models have significantly improved the current understanding of welding transport phenomena ( Ref 4 ), including various driving forces for molten metal flow in the weld pool, effect of shielding gas composition, dendrite microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is only the beginning of sampling. Once in the flame, the droplets follow the sequence illustrated in Fig. 12 . The free atoms are excited in an environment that in most cases is in LTE. Therefore, the most important factors controlling the efficiency with which an atom is excited are the flame...