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draft allowance

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are 5° (+2, −0 or ±1°) and 3° (± 1 2 °). (e) Primarily, the angles and tolerances shown are applicable to the iron-base, nickel-base, and cobalt-base heat-resisting alloys and refractory metals Table 2 Draft allowance (given in decimals of an inch) as a function of height of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solutions to molding and coring problems and describes the molding sequence. Draft refers to the amount of taper given to the sides of a pattern to enable it to be withdrawn easily from the mold. The article concludes with a simple example demonstrating the influence of a casting requirement on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract This article discusses some of the factors that are linked directly to the casting design of ductile iron castings. It reviews the choice of molding process, application of draft, and patternmaker's allowance that should be taken into consideration in designing castings. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... system. CAD/CAM systems provide much more than the definition of the solid model as a design. The article provides information on the applications of CAD systems, including integrated product development, drafting and product documentation, product visualization, mechanical analysis, and numerical...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... common data base allows the use of the 3D part design already created while the model was being built during the design and drafting process. All dimensions are stored to an accuracy typically far greater than that of the most precise machining tool; hence, the preparation for NC machining essentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... processes are cold drawing using heavier-than-normal drafts, followed by stress relieving; and drawing at elevated temperatures. cold drawing cold-finished steel bars heat treatment machinability quality descriptors residual stress stress relieving COLD-FINISHED STEEL BARS are carbon and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... classes of parting lines are called either "straight" or "broken" for brevity. Regardless of whether draft is applied or natural, the forging will have its maximum spread or girth at the parting line. Proper placement of the parting line ensures that the principal grain flow direction within the forging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., having a higher flow stress, translate the forces of the draft (percentage of reduction) to the center of the ingot, thus increasing centerline consolidation. Transformation of the initial cast structure into a fully wrought structure requires extensive hot working in the form of successive reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... summary in the form of a checklist. datum planes dimensioning draft allowance finish allowance forging design tolerancing tooling points A DIMENSION is a numerical value, typically expressed in decimals of an inch, fractions of an inch (used more so in the past), and decimals of a metric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... extrusion, in which the metal is confined ( Fig. 32b ). More draft is allowed in a controlled extrusion because the flow of metal is restrained, and more stock is allowed because a flash is formed. Fig. 32 Principal types of hot extrusion processes. (a) Straight extrusion. (b) Controlled extrusion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... geometric data base of the part to be cast. The data base may already exist or may have to be constructed from drawings. The pattern designer adds a parting line and draft and machining allowances at the CAD workstation. The part dimensions can be automatically scaled up to the designed pattern dimensions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the spindles horizontal and the blocks revolving in a vertical plane), particularly for applications involving large-diameter stock. Many design variations are available with bull blocks. For example, a double-deck arrangement permits two drafts to be performed, with the second draft maintaining a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract In the investment casting process, molten metal is poured into hot molds, allowing for the production of castings with extremely thin sections, knife edges and sharp detail. This article discusses patternmaking and dimensioning, as well as the pattern materials, such as waxes and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... Prior to the publication of the document, drafts were written and comments solicited from all present. The purpose of the specification is to present to airframe manufacturers a document that would contain the requirements for protecting the flight safety of aircraft. The specification discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., medium cutting, heavy cutting, and stack cutting. The article informs that the basic oxyfuel method can be modified to allow gas cutting of metals, such as stainless steel and most nonferrous alloys, that resist continuous oxidation. acetylene carbon steel cast irons chemical reactions heavy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forging that requires the least machining to satisfy finished-part requirements has the best properties. Thus, a finished part machined from a blocker-type forging usually exhibits mechanical properties and corrosion characteristics inferior to those of a part made from a close-tolerance, no-draft forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... examples of actual forgings. Ribs and bosses that may be incorporated in forging designs are classified for convenience in terms of draft, location on the web, location with respect to the parting line, and by profile. The basic types of ribs and bosses illustrated in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...) 0.5 (0.020) Thin section, round 0.25 (0.010) 0.3 (0.012) 0.3 (0.012) 0.36 (0.014) Draft angles (outside and inside 1° to 5°) 1 2 ° 1 2 ° 1 2 ° 1 2 ° Matching allowance (minimum on one surface) 0.8 ( 1 32 ) 0.8 ( 1 32 ) 0.8...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... parting lines on forgings to be made in different shops allows these lines to vary from shop to shop. Unless the draft has been removed, this variation may cause difficulties in locating forgings when they are being chucked for subsequent machining. However, shearing the draft is not always an adequate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... never outside it. In Fig. 1(a) , the flash is divided equally on either side of the parting line and is equally distributed between the upper and lower dies. This distribution of flash is common when the draft angle assigned to the forging is the same on both sides of the parting line, as in Fig. 1...