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double-image techniques

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The article discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15 Diagrams illustrating the relation of radiation beam, testpiece, and film for the double-wall, double-image technique of inspecting hollow cylinders or welds in tubular sections. Dimensions given in inches. (a) Setup for inspecting thin-wall hollow cylinders (OD/ID ≤ 1.4). (b) Setup More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16 Schematic of the double-wall, single-image inspection technique applied to a circumferential butt weld in a large-diameter pipe showing relation of radiation beam, weld, and film More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-density materials (~10 6 cm −2 ). Limitations of this technique include image doubling due to the K α doublet as well as significant loss of spatial resolution with increasing specimen-film distance. This technique often is used for initial assessment of crystals of new materials ( Ref 20...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... crystals, images of individual defects may be obtained and recorded on photographic plates or film. Defects near the surface can be completely characterized and defined using reflection topography (the Bragg case); defects in the bulk can be probed using transmission techniques (the Laue case) ( Fig. 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (1250 Å). This permits the use of low levels of stress during inspection. Further, special analysis techniques can provide improved sensitivity of almost 1000 fold. It does not rely on data acquisition by either point-by-point determinations or scanning processes; instead, three-dimensional images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... illustration of a typical radioscopic system using an X-ray image intensifier. It discusses the advantages and limitations of real-time radiography. Computed radiography (CR) is one of the radiography techniques that utilizes a reusable detector comprised of photostimuable luminescence (PSL) storage phosphor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... with a panoramic technique If the pipe diameter is less than 75 mm (3 in.), then the number of exposures can be halved by putting the source at a sufficient distance away from the pipe to provide images of both the near and the far sides of the weld. The so-called double-wall, double-image technique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and back through the lens to the eye. Therefore, the flat surfaces are bright using this illumination technique, but any voids, microcracks, or indentations are darker because the light is reflected off the sample at an angle. Bright-field illumination is particularly useful for imaging samples for ply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the development of these instruments, polarized light has been used less frequently for this purpose, because identification with the EMPA or EDS techniques is more definitive. The basic arrangement for image enhancement by polarized light is shown in Fig. 22 . Most metallurgical microscopes now use...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... study. The transmission electron microscope is particularly useful for elucidating grain-boundary phases, interfaces, ultrafine particles, nanoscale microstructures, and crystal defect chemical analysis techniques to give micro-micro chemistry. Image analysis and feature analysis permit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... distributions. Common particle size measuring techniques discussed in this article include sieve analysis, quantitative image analysis, laser diffraction, sedimentation methods, aerodynamic time-of-flight method, electrical zone sensing, and photon correlation spectroscopy. The advantages and disadvantages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., and to increase secondary electron output for improved imaging. Electrically conductive double-sided carbon tape or silver paint is usually used to complete the electrical path. Fine samples, such as powders, can be dispersed in conductive silver paint allowed to thoroughly dry or sprinkled on electrically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to the relevant material, this article is divided into sections based on classes of semiconductors that share a common set of analytic techniques. A number of techniques have uses across these categories, such as scanning electron microscopy for imaging surfaces at high spatial resolution, while other techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... surfaces of a stainless steel stent. This image was produced from multiple images combined using an extended depth-of-field technique to allow the surfaces of interest to be in focus in a single image. Sample size, shape, and condition requirements depend on the configuration of the microscope. Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Finally, high-technology industries used AFM for metrology applications. There are several driving forces that expanded the use of AFMs. For measuring images of nanoscale features, an AFM is relatively inexpensive compared to other techniques, such as the SEM and TEM. The AFMs can measure high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or physically altered. Field metallography is also called in situ metallography, and it is sometimes called nondestructive metallography. This article focuses on several field metallographic techniques that have been successfully used by the authors. Although there are many other applications, the examples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... With the use of computer vision techniques to extract information directly from the image, it is possible to remove the need for sensors with improvement in the system accuracy and reduction of system cost ( Ref 10 , 17 – 19 ). Magnetic-Particle Inspection Magnetic-particle inspection (MPI) uses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The article also illustrates the microstructure of different types of soft magnetic material and permanent magnets. bitter technique domain imaging Faraday method Lorentz transmission electron microscopy magnetic force microscopy magnetic materials magnetism magneto-optical Kerr method materials...