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double-image techniques

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers for the radiography of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... areas that were previously inaccessible except by detailed examination and disassembly of the structure. While the standard techniques of coupon evaluation for field studies of corrosive conditions are still valuable, they may be inconvenient, labor intensive, or too slow to monitor the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Inspection Tool and Control , Met. Prog. , Vol 85 ( No. 2 ), Feb. 1964 , p 114 9. Bradley D.E. , Replica and Shadowing Techniques , Techniques for Electron Microscopy , Kay D.H. , Ed., 2nd ed. , Blackwell , Oxford , 1965 , p 96 – 152 10. Vassallo D. , Fritzche...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... these techniques in their rudimentary form, however, and the additional options can often double or triple the cost. This article does not discuss methods such as optical microscopy of cross-sectioned samples or the shift of interference fringes at a purposely fabricated step. The thickness of a thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and etching. It provides information and data on composition, hot working, austenitizing, tempering, and powder metal manufacturing and explains how it affects tool steel microstructure, using more than 100 detailed images. austenitizing hardness macroscopic examination metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article discusses the principles and limitations of micromagnetic techniques, namely, magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE). It also discusses various factors limiting the establishment of acceptance criteria for test components as they pertain to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... experimental arrangement for developing image and recording current flow. Source: Ref 35 Abstract This article describes the test techniques that are available for monitoring crack initiation and crack growth and for obtaining information on fatigue damage in test specimens. These techniques include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... −2 ). Limitations of this technique include image doubling due to the K α doublet as well as significant loss of spatial resolution with increasing specimen-film distance. This technique often is used for initial assessment of crystals of new materials ( Ref 20 ). The transmission Berg-Barrett...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscopy techniques specific to magnetic materials (e.g., domain imaging), with specific examples where possible. It includes metallographic sample preparation procedures, followed by descriptions of microstructures of bulk magnetic materials. Information on magnetically soft materials, permanent magnets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... , Macro Techniques and Digital Microscopy , Microsc. Microanal. , Vol 12 ( Suppl. 02 ), 2006 , p 1682 – 1683 10.1017/S1431927606061332 14. Gammon L.M. , Macro Imaging Technique and How It Merges into the Digital World , Microsc. Microanal. , Vol 11 ( Suppl. 02 ), 2005 , p 2102...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Three-dimensional microscopy can be used to reveal the shape, distribution, and connectivity of three-dimensional (3D) features that lie buried within an opaque material. This article discusses several experimental techniques that can be used to generate 3D images. These include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... focused ion beam milling technique to achieve 100 nm thickness for electron transparency for TEM. Courtesy of University of Central Florida Fig. 5 BF TEM image of the nanocrystalline grains in cryomilled AA5083 powder. Courtesy of University of Central Florida Fig. 1 Material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... carrying out machining operations, laser processing parameters, efficiency and accuracy of the process, and the effect of laser processing parameters on the quality of the machined surface. The article provides an overview of the various conventional (chip forming) and nonconventional machining techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... discusses the sampling techniques and applications of IR spectra as well as the molecular structure information it can provide. The discussion begins with a description of the general principle of IR spectroscopy. This is followed by a section on commercial IR instruments. Sampling techniques and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Induction hardening of steel components is the most common application of induction heat treatment of steel. This article provides a detailed account of electromagnetic and thermal aspects of metallurgy of induction hardening of steels. It describes induction hardening techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... illustration of a typical radioscopic system using an X-ray image intensifier. It discusses the advantages and limitations of real-time radiography. Computed radiography (CR) is one of the radiography techniques that utilizes a reusable detector comprised of photostimuable luminescence (PSL) storage phosphor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the SEM compared with other common microscopy and microanalysis techniques. The following sections cover the critical issues regarding sample preparation, the physical principles regarding electron beam-sample interaction, and the mechanisms for many types of image contrast. The article also presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specimen. This article discusses fundamentals of the technique, especially for solving materials problems. Background information is provided to help understand basic operations and principles, including instrumentation, the physics of signal generation and detection, image formation, electron diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Larue J.-F. , Brown D. and Viala M. , How Optical CMMs and 3D Scanning Will Revolutionize the 3D Metrology World , Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection Springer, London , 2015 , p 141 – 176 10.1007/978-1-4471-6741-9_5 19. Liu Z. , Ukida...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...