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double-end upsetting

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of a greater amount of stock than would have been possible by upsetting alone. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 20 Tooling setup for double-end upsetting of a large-diameter steel tube in six passes and three heats. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 19 Tooling setup for upsetting a flange...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for cold forming engine intake valve. Courtesy of M. van Thiel, Nedschroef Herentals N.V. Fig. 15 Typical part with center upsets or upsets at both ends. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 22 Comparison of conventional forming method with reverse forming method. Courtesy of J. Bupp...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fracture propagated and arrested. End A, fracture arrest; End B, fracture arrest Fig. 3 Fracture surface of a tearing shear ductile fracture. Fig. 4 Tearing shear fractures. (a) In brittle material. (b) In ductile material Fig. 1 Modes of propagation for brittle fractures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... variable is tested are usually selected at the extreme upper and lower ends of each variable or at levels considered to be the allowable engineering design limits. ROTARY FRICTION WELDING is a solid-state welding process that uses the compressive force of the workpieces that are rotating or moving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Appearance Surface Finish Shearing is faster than other methods of cutting stock. In addition, no material is wasted in kerf. However, the ends of sheared stock are rougher than those of sawed sections. Rough or torn ends usually cannot be permitted, because forging defects are likely to nucleate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tensile work ( ∫ ( σ t / σ ¯ ) d ε ¯ ) at the end of the stroke to the critical values established from tension tests for cavity initiation ( C 1 * ) and surface fracture ( C f * ) in pancake forgings of Ti-6Al-4V with a colony...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mm (1.05 to 4.50 in.) in outside diameter, in several weights per foot. Ends are threaded for special integral-type joints or fitted with couplings and may or may not be upset externally. Water well pipe is a collective term applied to four types of pipe that are used in water wells...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in the aerospace industry. In the inertia welding process, titanium alloys have flywheel energies that are similar to those of steel. Surface velocities are typically at the higher end of the scale, ranging from values that are equivalent to those used for carbon steel to values that are 40% greater. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... are tailored to individual metals and to specific severity of the operation. The major advantage of metal films deposited on the billet is that they follow the expansion of the end face in upsetting and flow with the workpiece. Separately interposed metal or polymer films are cut through at the edges...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., expanding the 1.52 m (60 in.) section to 1.75 m (69 in.), with the bolster in a position at the stem end, which rested on the lower die. The upset reduced the length of the heavy octagonal section from 3.30 to 2.46 m (130 to 97 in.). In Position 2 of this operation, the bloom was returned to the horizontal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the four hammers and supports it until the length is increased so as to be grasped by the manipulator or chuck head at the exit side. Forging then continues in a back and forth mode until the desired finished cross section is achieved. At the end of each forging pass, the trailing manipulator relinquishes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... s −1 Microstructural condition Reduction in area, % At 938 °C (1720 °F) At 1000 °C (1830 °F) A 87 99 B 91 94 Internal variables attained at the end of double-cone upset forging in condition A Table 3 Internal variables attained at the end of double-cone upset...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are considerably different from mechanical presses that are used for forming sheet. Forging presses are built stronger than presses for forming sheet metal. Forging presses deliver their maximum force within 3.2 mm ( 1 8 in.) of the end of the stroke because maximum pressure is required to form the flash...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...) perpendicular to the fiber direction leads to void formation around the fibers near the plate ends. During compression of a plate, the lateral pressure, q , and normal pressure, p , increase toward the lateral central axis of the plate ( Fig. 3 ); the rate of increase depends on the lumped parameter μ L / h...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the plane that bisects the welded joint. Seldom are they found at the edge of the joint face. Crater cracks (No. 1, Fig. 3 ) are related to centerline cracks. As the name implies, crater cracks occur in the weld crater formed at the end of a welding pass. Crater cracks, formed in the residual puddle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... separation. Source: Ref 46 Fig. 43 Deformation patterns in nonlubricated, nonisothermal hot upsetting. (a) Initial barreling. (b) Barreling and folding over. (c) Beginning of end-face expansion. Source: Ref 50 Fig. 36 Superposition of fracture line (dashed) from Fig. 32 on measured...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... grades Stainless W 1230 2250 1120 2050 1205 2200 1205 2200 1120 2050 17–4 PH 1205 2200 1150 2100 1175 2150 1175 2150 1150 2100 (a) Up to 15%. (b) 15 to 50%. (c) Over 50%. (d) Refers to forgings receiving widely differing reductions. End upsets, for example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... (f) An unforgeable part that was bent to its final shape after preliminary forging Fig. 33 Machining stock allowances for hot upset forgings. (a) Hot upset forging terminology and standards. (b) Probable shape of shear-cut ends. (c) Variation of corner radius with thickness of upset...
Book Chapter

By Niels Bay
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... end-to-end is performed by securing the two workpieces in special clamps in such a way that a free length of the workpieces protrudes from the clamps ( Fig. 18 ). The free ends are pressed together, and the axial upset results in plastic deformation of the projecting ends that moves the original...