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dopant profiling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... layer analysis Nondestructive thin-film analysis Dopant profiles Rapid thin-film analysis AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; ERD, elastic recoil detection; GDOES, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy; ISS, ion scattering spectroscopy; RBS, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy; SIMS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... (or detectability) for positive ions in the silicon substrate. This effect is perhaps best exemplified in Fig. 11(a) and 11(b) , which show a depth profile for boron in silicon (the quantitative analysis of which is discussed in the next section of this article). The boron is a dopant that was intentionally put...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... they strike the specimens. A primary beam mass filter also rejects any neutral species in the beam. The use of a primary beam mass filter is a necessity for trace element and low-level dopant analyses. Finally, rastering of the primary ion beam over the specimen surface is required in SIMS depth profiling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... constituents called dopants, through application of an external electric field, and by exposure to radiation such as visible light. The carriers generated by these various stimuli move either in an electric field via drift or due to concentration gradients via diffusion. This fundamental relationship between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the 1970s to introduce dopant atoms reproducibly into silicon wafers to modify electrical performance, and it is used routinely in several stages of integrated circuit production. It allows fabrication of electronic devices not producible by any other process, largely due to the highly reproducible control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metallic contamination concentrations without ion source modification. Additionally, quantification of dopant doses by laser ablation does not depend on achievable depth profiling resolution, thereby ensuring measurement accuracy for shallow and even ultrashallow ion implants performed by ultralow-energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... manufacturing ( Ref 39 ). Binder-removal temperature, sintering temperature, porosity, and layer thickness in binder jetting can control the mechanical properties of titanium implants. Effects of postprocessing profiles, including debinding and sintering temperature, on physical properties of binder-jet-printed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... The dopants also significantly densify and improve film hardness, which improves wear resistance. The critical attributes of a dopant for MoS 2 are film forming ability, hardness, and thermal and oxygen diffusion resistance ( Ref 36 ). The control of composition and thickness afforded by PVD methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of gaseous species introduced to the chamber. Thus, MOCVD can be used to produce heterostructures, multiquantum wells, and superlattices with very abrupt transitions in composition, as well as alloys with tailored doping profiles. Fig. 1 Typical reactor design for metal-organic chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... can be varied. Multiple heating zones enable control of temperature profiles. Typical reduction temperatures range from 700 to 1000 °C (1290 to 1830 °F) ( Ref 12 ); however, the reduction process can range from 500 to 1100 °C (930 to 2010 °F) in special cases ( Ref 1 , 12 ).The flow of hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is in turn transformed, and the silicon-to-nickel ratio increases 2:1. This last layer grows epitaxially, that is, under preservation of the crystalline orientation of the substrate—a fact established using RBS by channeling, which is present only when the target is a single crystal. Impurity Profiles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... temperatures and viscosities that make it extremely difficult to form them with conventional techniques. Products made via chemical vapor deposition and sol-gel processes can be made with much lower contaminant levels and/or better controlled dopant levels. Glass and glass-ceramic products are for the most...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...) Differential thermal analysis (DTA) Dilatometry Thermogravimetric Analysis Thermogravimetric analysis is a technique in which the weight (mass) of a sample is continuously measured as the sample is subjected to a selected firing profile, which is usually linear. Reactions that occur during heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... degrees by small amounts of dopants of secondary cations, especially at the oxide grain boundaries. Fig. 1 Parabolic oxidation rate of various oxide scales (Arrhenius plot). The relationship between k ″ and k p (parabolic rate constant described by Eq 3 ) is k ″ = (8/V) 3 k p , where V...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-edge kerf profile can be obtained in Nd:YAG laser beam machining ( Ref 55 ). The Nd:YAG (Nd:Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers. The dopant, triply ionized neodymium, typically replaces yttrium in the crystal structure of the yttrium-aluminum garnet...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of essential ingredients. Primarily, the permanent chemical constituents (oxides or nonoxides with sintering aids and dopants) determine the final chemistry and phase assemblage, thus determining the ultimate properties attainable. The means by which these properties are consistently attained are the function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of bulk samples, thin-film composition and layer thickness, impurity profiles, damage depth profile, and surface peak—as well as the various codes developed to simulate it. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry backscattering channel-energy conversion energy-depth conversion Overview...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... source-lamp light at wavelengths within their absorption profiles. The absorption lines have a bandwidth approximately twice as wide as the emission profiles of the same elements in the low-pressure source lamp. In contrast to AES, ground-state (not excited state) atomic populations are observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., reactive gases are used in addition to solid sources, providing, for example, a more precise control of the dopant incorporation compared to conventional MBE. PVD versus CVD It is not relevant to claim that CVD is superior to PVD or vice versa; both families of the process have advantages...