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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Dimensional and shape changes caused by heat treatment have been the subject of scientific and industrial research for a very long time. This article provides an overview of the complexity of distortion and stress generation during heat treatment of steels. It discusses the measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... hardening. This article provides a model-based description of the development of residual stresses during case hardening. It also describes the influence and effects of residual stresses and distortion in hardening, carburizing, and nitriding processes of the steel. axial stress carbon content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article presents the three levels of investigations of distortion engineering. On Level 1, the parameters and variables influencing distortion in every manufacturing step must be identified. More than 200 parameters can affect distortion. The design of experiments approach allows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... microstructure, distortion, residual stress, and cracking in gears, shafts, and bearing rings. bearing rings cracking distortion electrical conductivity gears heat treatment heat treatment simulation induction hardening magnetic permeability microstructure phase transformation residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article also describes the generation of thermal, transformation, and hardening residual stresses. bearing steel case hardening distortion elastic plastic deformation heat treatment linear elastic deformation phase transformation quenching residual stress retained austenite steel...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article summarizes some of the issues and approaches in performing computational analyses of mechanical behavior, distortion, and hot tearing during solidification. It presents the governing equations and describes the methods used to solve them. The article reviews the finite...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses distortion due to differences in solidification times and its two solutions. The solutions include compensating the distortion in a pattern in the direction opposite to that of the observed distortion and increasing the section thickness of an end member and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Distortion often is observed in the analysis of other types of failures, and consideration of the distortion can be an important part of the analysis. This article first considers that true distortion occurs when it was unexpected and in which the distortion is associated with a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Analysis of the failure of a metal structure or part usually requires identification of the type of failure. Failure can occur by one or more of several mechanisms, including surface damage (such as corrosion or wear), elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. This leads to a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article provides information on the various stages of quenching, sources of distortion, and factors that affect the creation of thermal gradients. It reviews the various determinations of heat-transfer coefficients by the thermal conductivity and diffusivity method, analytical and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Heat treatment simulation helps to predict heat treatment results such as component microstructures, properties, residual stresses, and distortion, and thereby assists in reducing experimental effort in defining heat treatment parameters. This article discusses the modeling and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... rate. It describes the quench sensitivity and severity of alloys, quench mechanisms and the different types of quenchants used in immersion, spray, and fog quenching. The article provides a detailed description of the quench-factor analysis that mainly includes residual stress and distortion, which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract The presence of macroscopic residual stresses in heat treatable aluminum alloys can give rise to machining distortion, dimensional instability, and increased susceptibility to in-service fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. This article details the residual-stress magnitudes and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides general guidelines for casting design to provide progressive solidification, minimize heat concentration, eliminate cores, and prevent distortion. Casting design also affects tolerances. Casting tolerances depend on the alloy being poured, the size of the casting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... transformation diagrams, and continuous cooling transformation diagrams. The primary design criteria for heat treating of steels this article covers are the minimization of distortion and undesirable residual stresses. The article presents the theoretical and empirical guidelines to understand sources of common...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineered components fail predominantly in four major ways: fracture, corrosion, wear, and undesirable deformation (i.e., distortion). Typical fracture mechanisms feature rapid crack growth by ductile or brittle cracking; more progressive (subcritical) forms involve crack growth by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... continuous cooling transformation diagram crystal structure decarburization dimensional change grain size grinding heat treatment machining mechanical cracking microcracks microsegregation nonmetallic inclusions phase transformation process design quench distortion quenchants quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual (fracture surface): Mag: 1 to 50× Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads Dull, fibrous fracture Shear lips Little or no distortion Flat fracture Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy Rays or chevrons...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... distortion when rapidly heated and should be solutionized by heating slowly. Distortion may occur due to creep during solution heat treatment and must be considered while designing the loading of castings in the furnace. Blistering is another problem often observed with castings during solution heat...