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dissolution precipitation

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By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., composition, structure, electronic properties, and mechanical properties. The article outlines three possible processes that can form passive films: direct film formation, dissolution precipitation, and anodic oxidation of metal ions in solution. It describes the breakdown of the passive film using various...
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 10 Dissolution kinetics of NbC precipitates in nickel. Source: Ref 16 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... transformations in fusion welding, covering particle dissolution, growth, and coarsening of precipitates in the heat-affected zone. The article discusses the versatility of the internal state variable approach in modeling of nonisothermal transformations for various materials and processes. It describes...
Image
Published: 31 October 2011
(proportional to the inverse of grain size, D ) is hindered by the precipitates that exert a pinning force proportional to the ratio of precipitate volume fraction, f , to their size, r (i.e., f / r ). At regions near the fusion line, where the temperature is well above the dissolution temperature More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... microstructural changes that occur due to the heat treatment of cast alloys. artificial aging nonferrous castings heat treatment microstructural changes natural aging precipitation quenching solution heat treatment spheroidization cast alloys dissolution HEAT TREATMENT in the broadest sense...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... referred to as the precipitating agent or simply the precipitant. The suitability of the precipitant is determined by the magnitude of its solubility product constant ( K sp ) with the analyte. A sample K sp equation is shown as follows for the dissolution of the hypothetical sparingly soluble compound...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is based on the uniform dissolution of an unfilmed, pure, homogeneous metal that is equally exposed at all locations to a homogeneous environment. Corrosion engineers know that this description does not reflect reality in practical situations. In many engineering structures, dissimilar alloys are connected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... constituent particles generally formed from trace impurity elements that play a predominant role in pitting corrosion. The second category comprises the effects from precipitation of secondary phases and effects from solute remaining in solid solution on corrosion of aluminum. metallurgical effects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... contaminate the precipitate, usually by physical adsorption. Techniques for reducing this effect include aging the precipitate, dissolution and reprecipitation, reducing or oxidizing the potential contaminant ions, and the order in which the reactants are brought together. Other concerns include the growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of initial grain boundary precipitates remaining on the HAZ grain boundaries during heating. Fig. 10 Dissolution kinetics of NbC precipitates in nickel. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 11 Plot of R versus temperature as a function of NbC precipitate concentration, σ, and x during continuous 100 K...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of supersaturated elements, dissolution of unstable phases or precipitates, coarsening/spheroidization of stable intermetallic phases, surface oxidation, hydrogen degassing, and pore generation and agglomeration. Before discussing various issues pertinent to homogenization, it is imperative to address the root...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... that the crack-tip stress causes opening of the crack tip, rupturing of the protective surface film, and dissolving of the bare metal to result in crack growth. Anodic dissolution is thus characterized by controlling factors such as: Grain-boundary precipitate size, spacing, and/or volume fraction Grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and hydrogen embrittlement. Whether crack extension is by anodic dissolution or by hydrogen embrittlement remains an open question; however, in aqueous solutions, the primary source of hydrogen is anodic dissolution. Grain-boundary enrichment of magnesium without precipitation of a magnesium-rich phase has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the need to control dissolution of precipitates in microalloyed high-strength low-alloy steels; this application is discussed in a later section. In a carburizing heat treatment, the temperature also controls the carbon mobility and maximum solubility in austenite. Finally, partial austenitizing heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...-based MMC. The heat produced during welding can promote the dissolution of the tungsten carbide into the metal matrix, resulting in the formation of secondary tungsten-based carbides ( Fig. 8 ). The precipitate phases are based on either β-W 2 C or η-M 6 C-type carbides and tend to contain a combination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., current understanding is based on variations of two basic theories: crack advance by anodic dissolution or hydrogen embrittlement. The controlling factors in these two SCC models are as follows: Anodic dissolution (SCC) is characterized by: Grain-boundary precipitate size, spacing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...Abstract Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a cracking phenomenon that occurs in susceptible alloys, and is caused by the conjoint action of tensile stress and the presence of a specific corrosive environment. This article provides an overview of the anodic dissolution mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and be of identical or disparate crystallographic types. Often, there is one predominant phase, known as the matrix, and other secondary phases, called precipitates. The presence of these kinds of inhomogeneities often results in the alloy having radically different mechanical properties and chemical reactivities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... produced during welding can promote the dissolution of the tungsten carbide into the metal matrix, resulting in the formation of secondary tungsten-base carbides. The precipitate phases are based on either ß-W 2 C- or η-M 6 C-type carbides and tend to contain a combination of tungsten, chromium, and nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Discussions on mechanisms describe the physical process involved in crack initiation and propagation. The article also includes information on dissolution models and mechanical fracture models. stress-corrosion cracking time-dependent crack growth crack initiation crack propagation mechanical...