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dispersed-phase toughening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... molding, and resin film infusion. It explains the composite- and matrix-toughening methods for fiber-reinforced composites, such as dispersed-phase toughening and interlayer toughening. The article concludes with information on optical microscopy, which provides an insight into the micro...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 1 Micrograph of a carbon fiber composite material that contains a very small dispersed-rubber phase in the matrix. Ultrathin section. Transmitted light, Hoffman modulation contrast, 40× objective Fig. 2 Micrograph of a carbon fiber composite material that was toughened using two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Fig. 11 Micrograph of crack propagation through a dispersed-phase, rubber-toughened thermoset-matrix composite after impact. Transmitted-light phase contrast, 40× objective Fig. 12 Fracture morphology in a particle interlayer-toughened thermoset-matrix composite. (a) Strain birefringence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... as a candidate for structural applications. However, due to the limited maximum-temperature use of these materials, intense research was generated to determined other toughening mechanisms (besides transformation toughening and dispersed-phase toughening) and alternative toughened-ceramic systems. Silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-toughened alumina (ZTA) showing dispersed ZrO 2 phase (white) within an Al 2 O 3 matrix The microstructure and subsequent mechanical properties can be tailored to specific applications. Higher ZrO 2 contents lead to increased fracture toughness and strength values, with little reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the matrix. The selective etching of materials with a solvent or acid that is capable of dissolving or eroding a dispersed phase is one of the easiest and best techniques if you know the composition of the phase. For example, if the thermoset is toughened with polyetherimide (PEI), which creates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... The material systems that exhibit plasticity-induced toughening have three distinct microstructures: isolated ductile reinforcements in an elastic matrix, interpenetrating ductile/elastic networks, and a ductile matrix with a dispersed elastic phase. The first two represent most metal-toughened ceramics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to be irregular in shape. Also in this micrograph, the appearance of a dispersed phase is indicated by light, circular areas. Other features that are even more complex, such as connected phases, are also visible. Dark or shaded areas surrounding the fibers are more easily observed in this higher-magnification...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... average growth rate. Source: Ref 1 Overview of Composites A composite material is one that has a chemically and/or physically distinct phase distributed within a continuous phase ( Ref 2 ). The characteristics of the composite are generally different from those of either component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... into the epoxy or addition can be facilitated with a solvent that is later removed. In all cases, the rubber must phase out of solution during cure in order to effectively toughen the resin without sacrificing modulus and thermal performance. The acrylonitrile content of the rubber is an important...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... researchers added titanium carbide (TiC) to an Al 2 O 3 matrix. This alloyed ceramic is a dispersion-strengthened ceramic that contains 25 to 40 vol% TiC as a dispersed particulate phase. Alumina-titanium carbide is often called a black ceramic composite due to its color, which results from the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... the polymorphs may contribute to the toughening. Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) Partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) consists of grains with monoclinic and tetragonal or cubic forms, while the ceramics involving only tetragonal or cubic grains are fully stabilized zirconia. Phase diagrams describe...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., including fillers, adhesion promoters, tackifiers, and tougheners. It gives a short note on functions of primers and primerless bonding. Applications of adhesives in automotive, aerospace, electronics, electrical, medical, sports, and construction sectors are also described. Finally, the article describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of martensite. 20–100 70–210 Modulated clusters of carbon atoms on (102) martensite planes (A2) Identified by satellite spots around electron diffraction spots of martensite 60–80 140–180 Long period ordered phase with ordered carbon atoms arranged (A3) Identified by superstructure spots in electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Al 2 O 3 /ZrO 2 eutectic. (a) 20,000×. (b) 100,000×. (c) Two-phase intersection. (d) 2000×. Source: Ref 55 . Reprinted from S. Yan, D.J. Wu, Y.F. Huang, N. Liu, Y.N. Zhang, F.N. Fang, and G.Y. Ma, C Fiber Toughening Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 Eutectic via Ultrasonic-Assisted Directed Laser Deposition, Mater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... fracture toughness and those containing semicontinuous fibers that are intended to carry the load during matrix-microcracking in a service-overload condition ( Ref 11 ). Examples of oxide-matrix composites toughened by the dispersion of a second phase or material include the transformation-toughened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-boundary phase compared to GPSN (see Fig. 8 ) Fig. 17 Scanning electron micrograph of a zirconia toughened ceramic (ZTC), thermally etched in air at 1300 °C (2730 °F). Lighter, tetragonal ZrO 2 grains are dispersed in the Al 2 O 3 matrix. The parallel arrays of facets within the grains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... and pearlite in quenched steels Decrease K Ic of martensitic steels A list of precipitates and intermetallic compounds in aluminum alloys Table 3 A list of precipitates and intermetallic compounds in aluminum alloys Precipitate phases (beneficial) Intermetallic compounds (detrimental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Molybdenum bcc metal 1.768 7.14 Magnesium hcp metal 0.279 1.13 Titanium hcp metal 0.403 1.63 Copper fcc metal 0.112 0.45 Aluminum fcc metal 0.068 0.27 Source: Ref 4 Fig. 26 Two metallic phase diagrams. (a) The copper-nickel diagram. Copper and nickel are completely...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... phases: quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite, all three of which exist in high- and low-temperature modifications. The ideal cristobalite structure can be described in terms of the zinc blende lattice. The A atoms of cristobalite occupy both the A and X sites of the zinc blende structure...