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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...Abstract Abstract This article outlines a general approach to develop a coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical analysis for the resistance spot welding process. It provides information on the discretization of sheet-electrode geometry and distribution of contact resistivity along the sheet-sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... techniques. It introduces some common techniques for discretizing the fluid-flow equations and methods for solving the discrete equations. These include finite-difference methods, finite-element methods, spectral methods, and computational particle methods. The article describes the approaches for grid...
Book Chapter

By John E. Moalli
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract As with most engineering materials, the failure of composite materials, no matter how complex, can be divided into three discrete arenas: improper design, improper manufacturing, and improper use of the end product. This article reviews the failure causes from a broad...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... method, and the most frequently used simulation methods, standard Monte Carlo sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, and discrete probability distribution sampling. Further, the article discusses methods developed to analyze the results of probabilistic methods and covers the use of epistemic and aleatory...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one of the tools available for understanding and predicting the performance of thermal-fluids systems. This article qualitatively describes the basic principles of CFD. The numerical methods, such as geometry description and discretization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... and discretization of the microstructure, formulation of the equation of motion, and implementation of the topological transformations. The article presents examples that illustrate the simulation of physical phenomena to demonstrate the predictive power and flexibility of network models. vertex models grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., and applications in the modeling of PM processes. It describes the PM process in terms of powder compaction and sintering. The article schematically illustrates powder injection molding for the production of plastic parts and describes PM process models such as discrete-element model (DEM), linear continuum model...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... to the CFD techniques for their solution. It introduces discretization techniques that are used by finite-difference, finite-volume, finite-element, spectral, and some particle methods. Associated concepts of numerical stability and accuracy are also reviewed. The article describes two approaches for grid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... and Distortion Mathematical Formulations Directed-Energy Deposition Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Transient Thermal Response Elastoplastic Response Heat-Input Models Material Models Spatial and Temporal Discretization Material Activation Models Moving-Source Analysis Part-Scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... The article illustrates the application of the basic equations and approaches formulated for electromagnetic field and melt turbulent flow for the numerical study of an induction crucible furnace. computational fluid dynamics discretization finite volume method fluid viscosity induction crucible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... the structure or process being optimized and thus provide a means to alter or change it. They are often classified as continuous or discrete. Continuous design parameters are permitted to take any value over a predetermined range. A hole or fillet radius, for example, or the location of a joint in a truss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... to cause volume expansion in PM steels. Among PM nickel steels, high purity carbonyl nickel powder, with its fine discrete particles, is the form of nickel almost exclusively used ( Ref 1 ). Production of Nickel Powders There are several processes being used for production of nickel powders...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of occurrence = Number of desired occurrences Total number of trials             = lim n → ∞ m n = p ( x )  for a continuous random variable = p ( x i )  for discrete random variable Basic properties of such a probability...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of superalloys. For the most part, these defects also occur in discrete regions, as opposed to continuous defects. Solute-lean (negative segregation) defects are not inherently as detrimental to the properties of a component as are defects resulting from positive segregation. Types of ingot defects include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... an analytical or a closed-form solution model may be advantageous in many instances. However, it may be necessary to construct a discrete meshed model for finite element or finite difference calculations if the modeled volume: Has a complex shape (commonly found in many engineering applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Time and Space Discretizations Control Volumes for the FVM Implicit Iterative Computation of Temperatures For temperatures measured in quenching, the noise introduced by random measurement errors contains only high-frequency oscillations, which are usually small in amplitude. So, the main...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...: Select type of FEA: static, modal, dynamic, thermal, coupled-fluid structure, linear, or nonlinear. Select type of FE: beam, plate, shell, plane strain/stress, axisymmetric or solid, and mesh (coarse or fine) discretization. Define constitutive models: full 3-D orthotropic/anisotropic, two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of a simulation of the behavioral design that has been subjected to the same input sets as are to be used in the physical test. Simulation engines tend to be optimized for two distinct classes of problems: discrete signal (digital) and continuous signal (analog). The digital simulators are concerned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... is the attribute of the structure that permits it to retain its required residual strength for a period of use after the structure has sustained specific levels of fatigue, corrosion, or accidental or discrete source damage. The term “specific levels of damage” refers to damage between the levels of in-service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of the workpiece. General Considerations Modeling and Simulation of Machining Processes In computer models and simulations, it is common practice to use discretization to describe the physical behavior of a process and product. For example, finite-element simulation is widely used because of its ability...