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direct visual examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the basic principles of visual inspection in terms of direct visual examination and indirect visual examination as well as advantages and limitations of visual inspection. It reviews the factors affecting the effectiveness of VI as a nondestructive testing (NDT): lighting conditions of observation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... Abstract Fracture surfaces can provide an important and indispensable record of many factors in simple or complex failures. Visual examination of fracture surfaces can reveal the type and direction of loading, with fracture-surface features often providing definitive evidence of torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... failed components, and that examination can be performed visually at the macroscopic level. There are many discernible fracture characteristics that can, and should, be observed at the macroscale first before magnification-aided inspections take place, because they enable the analyst to direct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... management program. Overall integrity should be established by considering all credible threats that can impact the pipeline or segment being evaluated. Direct bell hole examination (direct visual examination of the pipe or coating) is used to prioritize corrosion defects for remediation and post...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Visual inspection is a nondestructive testing technique that provides a means to detect and examine a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities. This article discusses the equipment used to aid visual inspection, including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is the first and perhaps most important step in failure analysis. In many cases, the diagnosis can be made by visual examination, and testing is performed to confirm or contradict it. Many experimental nondestructive and destructive test techniques have been developed to measure damage levels in composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... river, as shown in Fig. 1 . In this figure, the crack-growth direction is from left to right. It has also been noted during fractographic examination that larger river patterns tend to give a better indication of the overall direction of crack growth in the specimen, as the larger river patterns...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
.... Fractography , a term coined in 1944 to describe the science of examining fracture surfaces, is in many ways the most valuable tool available to the failure analyst. The fruits of fractography include the identification of the fracture origin, the direction of crack propagation, the failure mechanism...
Image
Published: 01 January 2024
Fig. 36 (a) Hub-attachment bolt fracture surface. Evidence of brittle progressive cracking was noted during visual examination even though crack arrest marks were not obvious, including ratchet marks, a flat fracture surface oriented perpendicular to the direction of loading, and transition More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Examination Visual analysis is usually the first step in the nondestructive evaluation process. The purpose of a visual examination is to document all damage and to determine how the component may have separated, and from this information, to try to discern which specific fracture or fractures initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... describe visual examination in more detail. During direct examination, mirrors may be used to improve the angle of vision, and aids such as a magnifying lens may be used. Auxiliary lighting of specific parts or sections can be used to attain a minimum of 50 foot candles for the detection or study...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of failed helicopter blade Test Procedures and Results Visual analysis of the failed blade revealed that the top surface of the paddle had a smooth, glossy surface, except for two strips along the length of the paddle, which exhibited duller fracture features. Examination of the glossy areas...
Book Chapter