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direct chill process

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Vertical direct chill casting. (a) General arrangement of process. (b) Mold assembly. Source: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. 2 Vertical direct chill billet casting machine. Courtesy of Light Metal Age , Dec 1998 Fig. 5 Direct chill caster with (a) mold frame in position and (b) mold frame partially...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... required by downstream manufacturing processes. This article starts with a review of the different forms of ingot and the molten-metal processing techniques involved in ingot casting. It then describes the open-mold casting and direct chill (DC) ingot casting processes. The process variations...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the variety of alloys, furnaces, and associated melting equipment as well as the casting methods available for manufacturing magnesium castings. These methods include sand casting, permanent mold casting, die casting, thixomolding, and direct chill...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... shortness forces compromises in the steps normally taken to achieve directional solidification. Extensive localized chilling may aggravate crack formation. In these cases, more uniform casting section thickness, larger fillets, more gradual section thickness changes, larger risers and, in some cases, riser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... by the direct-chill semicontinuous process. Growth twins in the crystals. Polarized light. Barker's reagent. Original magnification 50×. Source: Ref 4 In contrast to aluminum ingot alloys, the foundry eutectic alloys exhibit a very regular, mostly equiaxed structure, as shown in Fig. 12 . If properly...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... uniform temperature throughout the solidifying casting. To promote directional solidification in such alloys may require temperature gradients as high as 1.46 °C/mm (65 °F/in.), which can usually be achieved only by severely chilling one portion of the solidifying casting. Generally, the goal in risering...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pressure. This is termed exudation and results in even higher positive macrosegregation at the surface. In direct chill casting of aluminum ingots, this macrosegregation can be so severe that the exuded surface layer must later be removed by scalping the ingot. Fig. 4 Inverse segregation in an A1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., dramatically increases the number of eutectic cells. The greater the number of cells, the smaller the degree of undercooling and consequently the lower the chilling tendency. A well-known radical method commonly employed in increasing the cell count in hypoeutectic iron is the inoculation process. The effects...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., risers should be placed to achieve the maximum pressure differential and, when possible, should be open to the mold surface. Blind or enclosed risers must be adequately vented. Observe the principles of directional solidification. The use of chills, riser insulation, and casting design changes may...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., plaster, ceramics, or even salt. When nonmetal destructible cores are used, the process is called semipermanent mold casting. Basically, the process involves the following steps: A refractory wash or coating is applied to the surfaces of the preheated mold that will be in direct contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... the liquid velocities and melt pools in casting processes are small, the flows are not always laminar. In large-scale liquid metal processes, such as vacuum arc or plasma arc remelting, or direct chill or continuous casting, the flows can transition from laminar to turbulent and relaminarize in different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract The primary objectives of the rolling process are to reduce the cross section of the incoming material while improving its properties and to obtain the desired section at the exit from the rolls. This article illustrates a rolling sequence for the fabrication of bars, shapes...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Shot peening is a method of cold working in which compressive stresses are induced in the exposed surface layers of metallic parts by the impingement of a stream of shot, directed at the metal surface at high velocity under controlled conditions. This article focuses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and availability of molten metal to feed the solidifying metal front. Venting must be placed advantageously to allow air and gas to escape ahead of the poured metal. Chills, which are sometimes inserted in the mold to initiate and accelerate solidification in desired locations and directions, must...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., plaster, die, and centrifugal casting processes. With high-shrinkage alloys, careful design is necessary to promote directional solidification, avoid abrupt changes in cross section, avoid notches (by using generous fillets), and properly place gates and risers; all of these design precautions help avoid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the extrusion process, which converts soft, plastic material into a particular form using an extruder, or screw conveyer. It discusses the two main types of plastic extruders, twin-screw and single-screw, estimation of extruder capacity, and design...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...(a) , the metal enters the cavity and attempts to flow in all directions. If the distance from the gate to the extremities of the mold cavity is too great, the metal freezes prematurely, and misruns result. When ribs are added to the plate, Fig. 1(b) , the metal flows readily to the extremities of the mold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
.... 2 Schematic of sand casting process flow Fig. 3 Average solidification rate and dendrite cell size of aluminum castings. DC, direct chill; DCS dendritic cell size. Adapted from Ref 4 Fig. 1 Handling of a sand cast helicopter gearbox. Courtesy of Avio Aero Fig. 15...
Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to casting or on annealed products to check for grain growth. They can be used in evaluating the amount of cold work on formed products by re-annealing and evaluating the grain size gradations. Caustic Etchants Caustic etchants are used to evaluate the thickness of the chill zone in direct chill cast...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... increasingly in gravity sand casting operations. The wide freezing range of the ZA-27 alloy (∼109 °C, or 200 °F) means that control of solidification is especially important for this alloy. The use of chills or patterns that promote directional solidification is recommended. Permanent Mold Casting...