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dilute cyanide baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of construction for equipment basic to copper plating Tank linings are of rubber or plastic (a) , or Koroseal. Plating bath Heating coils Filters Filter aids Dilute cyanide Low-carbon steel Teflon (b) Low-carbon or stainless steel; cast iron Diatomite Cellulose Rochelle cyanide Low-carbon...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... midcyanide, half-strength, or dilute cyanide bath concentration indicated in Table 1 . Plating characteristics of midcyanide baths and regular cyanide baths are practically identical. The only drawback of the midcyanide bath, compared with the standard bath, is a somewhat lower tolerance to impurities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Typical applications of liquid carburizing in cyanide baths Table 6 Typical applications of liquid carburizing in cyanide baths Part Weight Steel Depth of case Temperature Time, h Quench Subsequent treatment Hardness, HRC kg lb mm in. °C °F Carbon steel Adapter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., zinc cyanide, potassium cyanide, and potassium hydroxide. The amount of potassium cyanide determined by analysis is higher than that added to the bath initially, because the analysis also detects the cyanide in zinc cyanide. 7Sn-93Pb solution is used for bearings and corrosion protection of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... power of the copper electrolyte. The copper strike is achieved during the first 2 min while the current density of the electrolyte is maintained at 2.4 A/dm 2 (24 A/ft 2 ) to obtain a film thickness of approximately 7.5 μm ( Table 4 ). The copper strike bath should be a Rochelle-type copper cyanide...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (as a strike) on a variety of substrates. These baths can be easily controlled to produce thin deposits of relatively uniform thicknesses on all surfaces. Dilute Cyanide and Rochelle Cyanide Baths Dilute cyanide and Rochelle cyanide baths are primarily used to deposit a strike coating of 1.0 to 3.0 μm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Time for plating cadmium to a given thickness at various current densities Table 3 Time for plating cadmium to a given thickness at various current densities Data based on 90% cathode efficiency, in a cyanide bath Thickness of plate Plating time in minutes at current density specified...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and uncontrolled growth. This results in further current density variations that can seriously affect the mechanical properties of the deposit. Dilute cyanide and Rochelle cyanide baths are primarily used to deposit a strike coating of 1.0 to 3.0 μm (0.05 to 0.1 mil) of copper prior to further copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... on the aluminum surface. In general, chemical brightening baths can be concentrated or dilute acid solutions that contain oxidizing agents. The acids commonly used are sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, acetic, and, to a lesser extent, chromic and hydrofluoric. Ammonium bifluoride is used when it is desirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... dilute HCl Liberation of hydrogen cyanide (odor of bitter almond; Caution: highly toxic) 2. Silver nitrate White precipitate of silver cyanide 3. Concentrated sulfuric acid, hot Liberation of carbon monoxide (caution) 4. Mercury(I) nitrate Gray precipitate of mercury 5. Copper sulfide...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Methods of Measuring Case Depth Equipment Requirements Applications Hardness Gradients Hardenability of Case Effect of Time and Temperature on Depth of Case Furnaces Atmosphere Constituents Cyanide-Containing Liquid Carburizing Baths Cyaniding (Liquid Carbonitriding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroplated with cadmium from conventional plating baths. A typical bath has the following composition: Cadmium oxide 22 to 33 g/L (3.0 to 4.5 oz/gal) Sodium cyanide 85 to 110 g/L (11.5 to 15.0 oz/gal) Sodium hydroxide 16 to 24 g/L (2.1 to 3.2 oz/gal) Brightening agent As required...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... baths using the following cycle: Degrease with solvent (optional) Alkali clean (anodic) Rinse Dip in 5 to 25% hydrochloric acid Rinse thoroughly Dip in 30 to 75 g/L (4 to 10 oz/gal) sodium cyanide Rinse Copper cyanide strike Rinse thoroughly Dip in 10% fluoboric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of sulfamic, phosphoric, sulfuric, or hydrochloric acid Scale Complete removal of scale from mill products and fabricated parts Electrolytic pickling removes scale twice as fast. Salt bath descaling: Bath operates within temperatures of 400 to 525 °C (750 to 975 °F) Several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...); rotate sample periodically for approx. 5 min. Dissolve adherent glass with dilute acid Alumina-0.04%Cr H 3 PO 4 Heat sample slowly in gas flame to 425 °C (795 °F), then immerse in acid at 425 °C (795 °F) for 1–2 min Aluminum 60 mL H 2 SO 4 30 mL H 3 PO 4 10 mL HNO 3 Use at 100 °C (212 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... be more positive than the calculated potential; for a cathodic process with associated overpotential, it must be more negative than the calculated value. In a dilute solution, depletion in concentration near the electrode increases resistance R , yielding a change iR in potential. This iR drop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the flashpoint of a substance that will be used in or near a heat bath or heat source. The flammable limits refer to the concentration of the chemical in air, above which is too oxygen deficient to burn and below which lacks sufficient fuel to burn. Concentrations of the chemical between these limits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... manganese phosphating. (g) Reverse-current cleaning may be necessary to remove chips from parts having deep recesses. (h) For cyanide plating, acid dip and water rinse are followed by alkaline and water rinses. (i) Other preferences: stable or diphase emulsion spray or soak, rinse, alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... removal of above H 2 S groups; tartrate sometimes required to prevent interferences Cupferron Dilute H 2 SO 4 or HCl (cold) Fe, Ga, Sn, Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Mo, W, Pd, Sn, and Bi Excess reagent in filtrate must be destroyed if filtrate is used 8-hydroxy-quinoline Weak acid or base Most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is the treatment of iron, steel, galvanized steel, or aluminum with a dilute solution of phosphoric acid and other chemicals in which the surface of the metal, reacting chemically with the phosphoric acid media, is converted to an integral, mildly protective layer of insoluble crystalline phosphate. The weight...