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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... digital camera. It covers basic photographic principles and manipulation of settings that assist in producing high-quality images. The need for accurate photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented. failure analysis photographic documentation photography professional digital...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 High-speed videography. (a) Typical high-speed digital videocamera used in failure analysis photography. (b) High-speed videophotograph of an impact test More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with macrophotographic large-format view cameras, both the traditional wet processed films and instant (Polaroid, Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, MA) films. Today, increased use is being made of digital, “filmless” photography, and this trend is expected to increase. Historically, wet-processed black and white...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Care should be taken not to touch the corrosion products with bare hands or otherwise contaminate the sample. Digital Photography Recent advances in digital photography make it possible to comprehensively document coating failures without adding to the cost of the analysis. Effective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... digital recording attachments or a bellows for the connection of a camera, depending on the rigidity of the stand and the size and weight of the camera. Figure 3 shows research-quality bench microscopes suitable for photographic work. Fig. 2 Upright (a) and inverted (b) bench-type microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article reviews the main theoretical and practical aspects of sequence normally followed in digital image-acquisition, processing, analysis, and output for material characterization. It discusses the main methods of digital imaging, image processing, and analysis, as applied...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by the object impinges on a detector such as film. The unabsorbed radiation exposes the film emulsion, similar to the way that light exposes film in photography. Development of the film produces an image that is a two-dimensional “shadow picture” of the object. Variations in density, thickness, and composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... scene. Investigators who are not able to visit the accident scene often are limited to studying scene photographs taken by others. However, new technologies such as laser scanning allow for digital three-dimensional (3D) scene preservation, which allows for much richer investigation by those who were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Digital readouts of magnification are not very sensitive; a better indicator is the micron bar imprinted directly onto the micrograph. Because the micron bar is sensitive to both focus and magnification settings, dimensions in enlargements can be measured. However, serious errors arise if very accurate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... , layer manufacturing , freeform fabrication , rapid tooling , additive layer manufacturing , rapid manufacturing , direct digital manufacturing , additive manufacturing , and three-dimensional (3-D) printing . The term 3D printing was clearly applied to modern AM processes in the 1980s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
.... ( Ref 14 ) presented a clinical report in which they employed 3D printing in direct fabrication of a silicone facial prosthesis for the rehabilitation of a nasal defect. A digital 3D image of the patient’s face, which was created with facial scan data, was used to design the prosthesis. The prosthesis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress applied to magnetic material Online monitoring of magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... are taken directly from the metallographic samples (eliminating photography and darkroom time) by using a drawing tube to link the specimen image and digitizing tablet. The basic data obtained are the ( x,y ) coordinates along the profile at preselected intervals. These values are then transmitted to a main...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... order of diffracted light carries no useful information, so it is blocked by an optically opaque stop. The first two orders of diffracted light carry the image; after the beams are passed through spatial filters, one may be used for photography and the other for television pickup or other purposes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... technique enables the fabrication of the final shape by adding material one layer at a time. The only input information needed to create something using AM processes is its three-dimensional (3D) digital model. The advantage of this kind of approach becomes apparent by the flexibility in design. 3D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... for studying the fracture surface are based on the projected images (the picture obtained with the scanning electron microscope), stereoscopic viewing (using stereophotogrammetry), and sectioning (to generate profiles). The use of an automatic image analysis system with a digitizing tablet is extremely helpful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... workflow, which includes: Image or data acquisition Segmentation Conversion of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine to Standard Tessellation Language File optimization and mesh correction Printing Postprint processing Validation and quality control. This section...