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digital measurements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Digital radiography is a technique that uses digital detector arrays (linear or area) to capture an X-ray photonic signal and convert it to an electronic signal for display on a computer. This article begins with an overview of real-time radiography and provides a schematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... electrical resistances of the several thermocouples must be equal. A superior solution to averaging thermocouple signals is to measure each individually and average digitally. Furthermore, a true temperature profile can be detected this way. Finally, if one thermocouple signal deviates significantly from the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., cannot be separated completely; and for these structures, the semiautomatic digital tracing devices can be utilized to improve measurement speed. This article reviews many of the simple stereological counting measurements and simple relationships based on these parameters. More complex measurements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... denture teeth in a removable denture ( Ref 138 , Ref 139 , Ref 140 , Ref 141 , Ref 142 ). The dentures permit direct measurements of the samples by profilometry or three-dimensional computerized surface digitization. Because of the large number of uncontrollable clinical variables involved in these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... levels, resistance heating elements, quenching systems, work load support, pumping systems, and temperature control systems. It describes the classification of instruments used for measuring and recording pressure inside a vacuum processing chamber. Common devices include hydrostatic measuring devices...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... monitoring and control of motion and position of various mechanical components with the help of mechanical limit switches, proximity sensors, and distance- and position-measuring devices. Using inputs from both flow meters and sensors, such as thermocouples and oxygen sensors, flow measurement control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... platform for signal processing of temperature signals with a 16-bit resolution and a sampling rate of up to 200 kHz Software for monitoring time-dependent temperature Digital thermometer for measuring the temperature of the quenching medium prior to, during, and after quenching Sound-emission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... controller is a hybrid system, which combines real-time control of an analog feedback circuit with the accuracy of an iterative digital feedback algorithm, enabling rapid measurements and effectively minimizing errors in the feedback control loop. Conventional flux controllers use either a digital or analog...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... tuned to the second-harmonic frequency. The signal is first transferred to a digital oscilloscope and then to a computer for postprocessing. Signal averaging is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured time domain signal. The steady-state portion of the time domain signal is extracted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... limits (optimal signal to noise) for trace analysis. Even strong ion signals on the order of high pA to nA range use basic current amplifiers to put the signals into an easily measurable range to be digitized with accuracy. Ion detectors can have as much variation between each other as the mass analyzers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... well as the importance of time, and temperature control in heat treatment. Temperature Uniformity Survey, a testing procedure intended to map variations in temperature throughout the furnace work zone, helps in precise control of temperature. The article focuses on the measuring instruments used to...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... having measurable thickness in all directions can be also detected as long as they are not too small in relation to section thickness. This system has replaced conventional radiography (film x-ray) and consists of an x-ray generator and a detector (an image intensifier or a digital detector). When the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... effect. A broad understanding of the history and current state of IR detectors is helpful for those interested in implementing this technique to help them to make informed choices with regard to camera selection. Unlike purely optical strain measurement techniques such as digital image correlation, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... The profile characteristics are readily measured with a commercial image analysis system connected to a suitable optical metallographic system ( Ref 9 , 27 ). The image of the curve is traced with the cursor, which is on the digitizing tablet. Measurements are taken directly from the metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Most surfaces have regular and irregular spacings that tend to form a pattern or texture on the surface. This article provides information on the general background of surface topography and discusses the different methods for measuring surface topography, namely, contact and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... accuracy of the transmitter has similar qualifications. Measurement instruments are classified by their displays (analog or digital) and whether they are recording or nonrecording types. Analog displays include meters and motor-driven pointers. Analog strip-chart or round-chart recorders include analog...