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digital measurements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The article concentrates on the basic properties of digital measurements that are the core of quantitative image analysis. It provides a brief description of the specimen and apparatus preparation as well as the image acquisition. The article explains how to evaluate stereological parameters and provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... The reduced cost and more compact packaging of digital support hardware has spawned the integration of temperature control with auxiliary functions such as process documentation and workpiece flow. These process management systems ( Fig. 4 ) can integrate the functions of temperature measurement, loop control...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... by the cesium (10 wt%) map (f), and perovskite by the strontium (2 wt%) map (g). Fig. 13 Digital composition map of a zinc-containing copper specimen. (a) Digital compositional map of a portion of the grain boundary shown in Fig. 11 . Note the continuous gray scale presentation. The gray scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is measured both intensively (for example, number of pixels per unit distance) and extensively (for example, total number of pixels on each axis of the image), depending on the digitization method. Typical values for a scanner range from 300 dpi (dots per inch) to several thousand dpi, while modern digital...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... treating industry. With this type of meter, it is important to keep the damping oil inside the sight glass clean (by means of regularly changing the oil), because dirty oil will transmit less light, which will bias the output of the digital measurement. More recently, new sensing technologies have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...) or coordinate-measuring arms (CMAs) convert measurements of a surface to digital data that can be analyzed by software. These devices can range from manually operated to fully automated devices that perform computer-aided-design-based inspections. The CMMs are highly precise and accurate, require less labor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... There also are now a range of handheld, mostly digital, ultrasonic thickness gages that, when calibrated, typically give a digital readout of part thickness and will record and store (and transfer) some number of measurements. In addition to conventional single-transducer pulse-echo inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... not exceed two cycles as measured to the 20 dB level below the peak response ( Ref 6 ). Instrumentation Choice of Digitizer Settings The recording equipment generally employs a digitizer that records amplitude data at regular intervals, for example, with a cycle time of 20 MHz. It is vital...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... is a hand-sized instrument that measures the indentation hardness of rubber and plastic products. It is manually applied to the test specimen, and the reading is observed on a dial or digital indicator. Laboratory accuracy can also be obtained by mounting the durometer on one of several types of operating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the vertical sections. To calculate the roughness parameter R L , it is necessary to measure the total length of the fracture profile λ. Once the fracture profile is digitized, the total profile length λ is simply given by the sum of the lengths of the straight line segments joining the adjacent digitized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metallography or stereology relates two-dimensional features, as seen on photographs or images, to the actual three-dimensional microstructure. Common measurements include grain size, inclusion rating, phase determination, and density of dislocations. E.E. Underwood has described the basic measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of a professional digital camera. It covers basic photographic principles and manipulation of settings that assist in producing high-quality images. The need for accurate photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented. failure analysis photographic documentation photography professional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspection involves viewing of a real-time image on a fluorescent screen or image-intensifier, the radiographic process is termed “real-time inspection.” When electronic, nonimaging instruments are used to measure the intensity of radiation, the process is termed “radiation gaging.” Tomography, a radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., the hydraulic ram of a stamping press is an actuator, with hydraulic pressure as its input and punch force as its output, while the metal that is formed is the plant, with punch force as an input and a material deformation measure such as thickness as an output. Systems may have several inputs and outputs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Direct-Current Resistivity Testing A voltage field within a conductive solid will create currents that are influenced by structural irregularities, including cracks and porosity. This characteristic has been used to measure carburized case depth in wrought steels ( Ref 4 , 5 ). The arrangement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Digital radiography is a technique that uses digital detector arrays (linear or area) to capture an X-ray photonic signal and convert it to an electronic signal for display on a computer. This article begins with an overview of real-time radiography and provides a schematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for measuring the distances in the x - and y -directions, and some offer digital readout of these data. The focusing controls may contain rulings for estimating vertical movement. Some units have motorized stages and focus controls that allow automated movement of the sample often controlled by a PC and image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...: axial fatigue testing machines and bending fatigue machines. Load cells, grips and alignment devices, extensometry and strain measuring devices, environmental chambers, graphic recorders, furnaces, and heating systems of ancillary equipment are discussed. The article presents technologies available...