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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... The article provides a schematic illustration of a typical storage phosphor imaging plate. It concludes with a discussion on the benefits of digital radiography. computed radiography digital radiography photostimuable luminescence storage phosphor real-time radiography X-ray photonic signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... area to generate an image, because they do not require contact with the test piece and can be performed with only single-side access on flat or curved surfaces. In general, SET methods are limited to detection of features where the diameter of the flaw is greater than its depth and the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system. computed tomography digital radiography dual-energy imaging film radiography partial angle imaging real-time radiography X-ray computed tomography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... imaging. Macrophotography is commonly performed in failure analyses using a professional digital camera with a macro/micro lens. The typical magnification achievable with macrophotography is 1 to 1. Macrophotography lighting is critical because the camera is in close proximity to the component being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... thermometers fall under the noncontact type. The article describes two types of instrumentation used in heat treating: field test instruments for temperature-uniformity surveys and system-accuracy tests; and controlling, monitoring, and recording instruments for digital instrumentation. electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... sections radiographic film processing THE TERM RADIOGRAPHY often refers to the specific radiological method that produces an image on film (conventional radiography) or digitally using detection systems that fluoresce once exposed to penetrating radiation (with x-rays or γ-rays). This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... systems driven by personal computers can handle complex images quickly and accurately, with resolutions comparable to those of the human eye. The most economical image systems convert an analog camera signal to a digital signal through a hardware processor. Although digital cameras are available, they are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... scale of images. Gradually, array systems customized for NDE appeared and, in common with their medical counterparts, became increasingly digital. However, until the early 2000s, both medical and NDE systems remained based on the underlying paradigm of emulating operations that could, theoretically at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... recording medium (usually film), a real-time imaging medium (such as fluorescent screens or scintillation crystals), computed radiography, digital radiography, or computed tomography. The imaging process can also be assisted with the use of intensifying or filtration screens, which intensify the conversion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... become nearly obsolete, and digital recording media are the mainstream for electron detection. This media conversion occurred much earlier in scanning instruments (STEM and SEM). Initially, photographic film was used to record images in STEM and SEM instruments, but this option is now completely obsolete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has unique capabilities for analyzing fracture surfaces. This article discusses the basic principles and practice of SEM, with an emphasis on its applications in fractography. The topics include an introduction to SEM instrumentation, imaging and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... acceleration voltage and spot size. A scan generator enables the user to select magnification, dwell time per pixel, and number of pixels per image; a frame grabber enables digital image capture and storage on the computer. Quality of the images is a function of both the number of pixels to provide sharpness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the inspected material. The sizing is carried out automatically, using the times of arrival of the generated signals as much for the discontinuities as for the surface limits of the component. To obtain high-quality B-scan digital images, it is very important during the calibration to consider all...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... unlimited field of view, while image intensifiers have a field of view limited to approximately 300 mm (12 in.). The dynamic range of systems with fluorescent screens can vary from 20 to 1 for raw images to 1000 to 1 with digital processing and a large number of frames averaged. Image-intensifier tubes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... systems) typically involves the use of CCDs as the optical sensor or the use of television signals that are converted into digital form. Optical sensors are also used in inspection applications that do not involve imaging. However, in some applications, incoherent light sources are very effective in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... parts, through-transmission breast imaging system, inspection of welds in thick materials, and inspection of sleeve-bearing stock. It describes the basic system for liquid-surface acoustical holography and scanning acoustical holography. A comparison between these techniques is also provided...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Holography is basically a two-step process for creating a whole three dimensional image of a diffusely reflecting object having some arbitrary shape. This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages and applications of using the optical holography method in nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... for studying the fracture surface are based on the projected images (the picture obtained with the scanning electron microscope), stereoscopic viewing (using stereophotogrammetry), and sectioning (to generate profiles). The use of an automatic image analysis system with a digitizing tablet is...