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differential interference contrast illumination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... illumination (not common today), and differential interference contrast, generally by the Nomarski technique. Bright-field illumination is usually the starting point for examination of microstructures, which should start before etching to detect nonmetallic inclusions, nitrides, carbides, and possibly voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... spectra to only that of the element of interest and the associated fill gas (i.e., neon or argon). Consequently, subsequent wavelength-isolation components (monochromator or interference filter) were only required to isolate the selected resonance transition wavelength. This is contrasted with high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspection of bonded structures, including visual inspection, ultrasonic inspection, X-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. The evaluation and correlation of inspection results are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the effects of ultrasonic wave interference in the ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that requires a three-dimensional appearance. It uses low-angle illumination, so higher magnifications are limited. Polarized light is especially useful for analyzing optically anisotropic metals, such as beryllium, α-titanium, and zirconium. Differential interference contrast (DIC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specimen edge (revealed using Nomarski differential interference contrast illumination) and the water stains (arrows on the aluminum specimen). Fig. 6 Light micrograph showing stain (arrows pointing up) from the etchant (Vilella’s reagent) that seeped from the shrinkage gap (wide arrows pointing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lenses combined with convex lenses to relay the image. A larger light guide bundle is used, which provides higher illumination and a larger image with a higher degree of contrast. Hybrid borescopes are up to 990 mm (39 in.) long, and 5.5 to 12 mm (0.216 to 0.47 in.) in diameter. All hybrid borescopes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... formed by interference between two nearly identical holographic images that are created while the object is differentially stressed. Instead, systems for acoustical holography obtain information on internal flaws directly from the image of the interior of the object. The basic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... printing methods have been developed, but their use is infrequent. Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. Figure 15 is a simplified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... incident upon it. Illumination conditions should assist observation and not worsen vision when light is insufficient or excessive. Increasing lighting level improves vision up to a point, after which glare from reflections interferes with the ability of clear vision. Low illumination decreases visual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applied to high-resolution, high-frequency ultrasonic inspection techniques that produce images of features beneath the surface of a sample. Because ultrasonic energy requires continuity of materials to propagate, internal defects such as voids, inclusions, delaminations, and cracks interfere with the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... formed by interference between two nearly identical holographic images that are created while the object is differentially stressed. Instead, systems for acoustical holography obtain information on internal flaws directly from the image of the interior of the object. The principles of flaw detection by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... parallel stationary beam is illuminated on a specimen. This mode is useful for conventional TEM imaging, such as bright-field (BF) and dark-field (DF) TEM imaging, high-resolution TEM imaging, and conventional electron diffraction analysis, including selected-area electron diffraction. This mode is also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... objective lenses and eyepieces ( Fig. 1 , 2 ). The minimum feature resolution is approximately 0.2 μm. However, smaller features—as small as approximately 0.05 μm—can be detected by image contrast enhancement with polarized light, interference contrast, or dark-field illuminations. Fig. 1 Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.9781627081627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and ion-scattering spectroscopy can be used to show what is on or within the first few atomic layers of the surface. These techniques yield specific chemical bonding information and identify the elements present and, in contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... micrometers to kilometers Any solid structures including concrete, aircraft, nuclear components, etc. Vibration analysis Accelerometers, velocimeters, and/or displacement sensors measure local displacements. Analysis includes amplitude, frequency, and differential measurements Changes may indicate...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., thermocouple type, specimen size, specimen preparation, sample holder and push rod material, frequency of calibration Differential thermal analysis Temperature Furnace atmosphere, heating rate, reference material, thermocouple type and placement, interference, sample particle size, ample packing density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by microscopy alone. Because they reveal the characteristic lattice rotation produced by twinning, x-ray and electron diffraction positively differentiate twins and slip lines ( Fig. 31b , c ). Polarized light illumination is sometimes useful for identifying twins, especially in hcp metals. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... rewarded with improved results and ease of correct interpretation. Errors in interpretation are made when specimens are not properly prepared. As-polished samples should be examined first with bright-field illumination and then with dark-filled illumination, differential interference contrast (DIC) or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9