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differential aeration

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion: galvanic coupling, differential aeration, alkalinity, and stray currents. The resistance of lead and lead alloys to corrosion by a wide variety of chemicals is attributed to the polarization of local anodes caused by the formation of a relatively insoluble surface film of lead corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article provides information on the municipal wastewater system components such as piping, pump stations, headworks, clarifiers, aeration structures, digesters, biosolids dewatering equipment, and sludge stabilization. It explains the major corrosion damage mechanisms to which...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... usually takes place at low elevations in poorly drained soils where there is minimal aeration. Corrosion by differential aeration can result from various conditions. For example, when a pipe passes through two different soils that differ in oxygen permeability, a galvanic current will flow from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... when it is combined with a differential aeration cell, in which the anaerobic zone works as a local anode. Steel structures buried in the ground, such as pipelines, provide a better electrical conductor than the soil for stray return currents from electric rail systems, electrical grounding equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Material Ferrous metal, carbon steel Product form Pickle jar lid Fig. 10 The nail was removed from an outside door frame. Selective crevice-type corrosion was caused by differential aeration where an outer wooden panel was fixed to an inner wooden support. There are possible contributions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... stagnant areas where passivity breaks down through the action of a differential aeration cell. In soft water, aluminum coatings exhibit a potential that is positive to steel; therefore, they act like a noble coating. In seawater or in aqueous environments containing Cl − or SO 4 2− , the potential of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonuniformities, such as those created by differential aeration cells or by heavy metals plated out on the surface. Localized corrosion in a microscopic sense results from galvanic coupling and stray-current effects. Joints fastened by mechanical fasteners—bolts, screws...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... variations of temperature, concentration, velocity, impurity content, degree of aeration, and stress. The ratings are based on general performance; they should be used with caution, and then only for the purpose of screening candidate alloys. The letters E, G, F, and P have the following significance: E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... greater corrosion resistance than alloyed uranium in some alkaline solutions. Corrosion resistance also depends on oxygen dissolved in solution. Therefore, the rate and even which material is the anode or cathode may change as solution pH or aeration changes. Corrosion rate will also depend on the ratio...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., brackish, and potable waters. Environments to be avoided include nitric acid (HNO 3 ); some metallic salts, such as ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) and chromic acid (H 2 CrO 4 ); moist, chlorinated hydrocarbons; and moist HN 3 . Aeration can result in accelerated corrosion in many media that appear to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanical history. Generally speaking, cast and wrought products can be differentiated on the basis of their microstructure as well as their overall shape and external appearance prior to such examination. Segregation effects are much more likely to be present in cast products. Features such as long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...-draining, sandy soils). This results in differential aeration conditions between the oxygen-starved clay and the more oxygen-rich sand or gravel regions. Under these conditions, the bottom of the pipe becomes anodic to the upper (cathodic) pipe surfaces, and aggressive pitting corrosion proceeds until the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material is more corrosion resistant (i.e., more noble). Fig. 3 Galvanic series of metals and alloys in seawater. Alloys are listed in order of the potential they exhibit in flowing seawater; those indicated by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ) linked the galvanic potential difference and consequent corrosion rate to the activity of the microorganisms in a lab study based on the SRB Desulfotomaculum nigrificans under anaerobic conditions. Oxygen concentration or differential aeration cells commonly occur in aerobic environments where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... application method may be somewhat different as well: Fluidized-bed dip: Aerate the powder in a chamber via airflow; dip the hot component into the “fluidized” powder. Flock: Spray powder onto the preheated component via compressed air—no electrostatics. Electrostatic spray: Spray charged...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... established in accordance with ASTM B275. UNS designations were established in accordance with ASTM E 527. The last digit of a UNS number differentiates between alloys of similar composition. UNS designations for ingot and casting versions of an alloy were not assigned in the same sequence for all alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... basic subclassifications of liquid nitriding are those presented in Table 5 . Table 5 Liquid nitriding processes Process identification Operating range composition Chemical nature Suggested post treatment Operating temperature U.S. patent number °C °F Aerated cyanide-cyanate...