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desulfurization systems

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in FGD systems. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 3 Guidelines for selection of stainless steels and nickel alloys for flue gas desulfurization equipment at 50 to 65 °C (122 to 149 °F). Source: Ref 3 Abstract Abstract This article begins with a discussion on the components and importance of flue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Compositions of some alloys used in flue gas desulfurization systems Table 1 Compositions of some alloys used in flue gas desulfurization systems Alloy UNS No. Composition (a) , % C Fe Ni Cr Mo Mn Others 304L S30403 0.03 max bal 10.0 19.0 … 2.0 max 0.045 max P...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Theoretical weight ratios: desulfurizer to iron to achieve 0.008% S in various systems Table 1 Theoretical weight ratios: desulfurizer to iron to achieve 0.008% S in various systems Type of melt Slag composition T , K C S (× 10 4 ) (a) f S h o (× 10 4 ) (b) (DR) max (c...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Injection and porous plug desulfurizing systems can be either batch type, treating individual ladles, or a continuous system, with the cupola stream flowing through a special forehearth outfitted with a porous plug and a carbide feed (or injection lance). The spent carbide or lime is raked off or overflows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... applications include carbon steel heat-exchanger tubes used in sulfuric acid plants, low-alloy steel pipes and fittings used in petroleum refinery heaters, type 304 stainless steel vessels used in flue gas desulfurization systems, and HK or HP cast tubing for ethylene pyrolysis units. Partial list...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... challenge. Also discussed in this Section are flue gas systems, especially the wet flue gas desulfurization systems. These are strongly affected by corrosion because of the corrosive nature of flue gas impurities such as sulfur dioxide. This section addresses the automotive industry and also discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and porous plug desulfurizing systems can be either batch type, treating individual ladles, or a continuous system, with the cupola stream flowing through a special forehearth outfitted with a porous plug and a carbide feed (or injection lance). The spent carbide or lime overflows or is raked off...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... desulfurization ratios. Plots for electric-melted iron and steel (line A) assume initial sulfur concentration (%S) i = 0.03, different from that of cupola-melted iron (line B) at (%S) i = 0.01. Source: Ref 35 Fig. 25 Univariant equilibria in the Fe-Mn-S-O system in the presence of γ-Fe and (Mn...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...: Carbide is injected with inert gas through graphite or refractory lances that supply the carbide and simultaneously stir the melt. Inert gas is bubbled through a porous plug in the bottom of a ladle, with desulfurizing agent fed onto the surface with a vibrating feeder. The shaking ladle system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Source: Ref 13 Fig. 18 Desulfurization in the through-flow process Fig. 24 Process diagram of an aluminum works for producing 80,000 t/a aluminum ( Ref 32 ) Fig. 7 Free reaction enthalpy of a number of oxides dependent on temperature for the reference basis “pure substances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... factors affecting it are thoroughly discussed in Ref 4 , 5 . Many of these cases are also valid for waste incinerators. Nitrate SCC in heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs) is a more recent problem area ( Ref 6 , 7 ). Problems in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are covered in the article...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process) use either a vacuum induction melter under low pressure or as a stream degasser. The system can be used for cold charging of steel in the induction furnace and melting, refining, and teeming of steel under low pressure. The steel could also be hot charged under low pressure in the vacuum furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Undecanol Used as chain stopper Saturated acids and anhydrides Phthalic anhydride Most common anhydride Isophthalic acid Good hydrolysis resistance Terephthalic acid Superior hydrolysis resistance HET acid Flame-retardant systems. In fact, even when addressed as HET acid, the HET...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... desulfurization cannot be achieved during steelmaking as the conditions are highly oxidizing (see the section on steelmaking). Oxygen potential in the system affects the distribution of all the elements that partition themselves between the metal and the slag. Oxygen potentials favorable for sulfur control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for electric melting that will provide suitable base sulfur upon melting. In cupola melting, sulfur is also absorbed from the coke. When using cupola-melted iron, it is common to employ continuous desulfurization in a vessel built into the cupola tapping trough system. Nitrogen bubbling with one or more porous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the identification systems for various grades of wrought stainless steels, namely, the American Iron and Steel Institute numbering system, the Unified Numbering System, and proprietary designations. It elaborates on five major families...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...) Heating, holding, and cooling zones. Source: Ref 24 Abstract Abstract This article describes ironmaking and steelmaking practices (melt or liquid processing, including hot metal desulfurization) and discusses the evolution of these processes and their effects on steel properties. The physical...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... … 50 … 50 … Difficult starting; electrically efficient (a) The universal designation system for slags is the percentage of constituents listed in the order CaF 2 /MgF 2 /CaO/MgO/Al 2 O 3 . Thus, a common base slag such as 60%CaF 2 /20%CaO/20%Al 2 O 3 would be referred to as 60/0/20/0/20...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and swing arm mounted separately from furnace. (b) Roof-lifting device and swing mechanism attached to furnace. (c) Roof lifting by cylinder and cable/swing system by rotating roof with a kingpin arrangement Fig. 8 Furnace design incorporating a water-cooled roof and upper sidewalls. The location...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to the furnace. Minor reductions in carbon content may occur, and most VIM operations now include a deliberate desulfurization step. However, the composition is substantially fixed by choice of the initial charge materials, and these materials are inevitably higher-priced than those that are used in arc-AOD...