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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-heading machine and the tools used in the cold heading process. These include headers, transfer headers, bolt makers, nut formers, and parts formers. The article explains the operations required for preparing stock for cold heading, including heat treating, drawing to size, machining, descaling, cutting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stainless steel. This article describes the surface treatment of stainless steels including abrasive blast cleaning, acid pickling, salt bath descaling, passivation treatments, electropolishing, and the necessary coating processes involved. It also describes the surface treatment of heat-resistant alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... acid pickling batch pickling continuous pickling descaling electrolytic pickling hydrochloric acid inhibitors pickling pickling defects pickling equipment precleaning safety practices scale removal spent pickle liquor disposal steel sulfuric acid OXIDE SCALE must be completely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... descaling, pickling or etching, anodizing, autoclaving, polishing, buffing, vapor phase nitriding, and electroplating. It also provides several application examples. anodizing autoclaving blast cleaning buffing chemical descaling cleaning electroplating etching finishing forming hafnium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical and their effectiveness and applicability. The mechanical cleaning methods include grinding, brushing, steam or flame jet cleaning, abrasive blasting, and tumbling. Solvent cleaning, emulsion cleaning, alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, pickling, and descaling are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and drying must follow pickling. The most widely used methods for removing oxides or scale from heat-resistant alloys, in order of decreasing preference based on economic considerations, are acid pickling, abrasive cleaning by tumbling or blasting, and descaling in molten salt. Alkaline scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...: Abrasive blasting (dry or wet) Tumbling (dry or wet) Brushing Acid pickling Salt bath descaling Alkaline descaling Acid cleaning The most important considerations in selecting one of the above methods are: Thickness of rust or scale Composition of metal Condition of metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... titanium materials. Generally, a heavy oxide layer resulting from hot working of the metal is removed by grit blasting or other mechanical means, or by salt bath descaling. After removal of the scale, further mechanical or chemical treatment is applied to remove the hardened, oxygen-rich metallic case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... free of dirt, fingerprints, grease, and residues before stress relieving. Contaminated surface metal must be removed from the entire weldment by machining or descaling and pickling to remove 0.025 to 0.050 mm (0.001 to 0.002 in.) per surface. Repair welds should follow the established specification...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for removing rust and scale from ferrous mill products, forgings, castings, and fabricated metal parts are: Abrasive blasting (dry or wet) Tumbling (dry or wet) Brushing Acid pickling Salt bath descaling Alkaline descaling Acid cleaning The most important considerations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Subsequent Hydraulic Descaling: Numerical Simulation , Third Int. Conf. Hydraulic Descaling, Proceedings , Sept 14–15, 2000 (London, U.K.), IO. Communications Ltd., 2000 , p 77 – 86 110. Krzyzanowski M. , Yang W. , Sellars C.M. , and Beynon J.H. , Analysis of Mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and precipitate out on internal surfaces. The reduction in pipeline diameter caused by heavy scale buildup, the reduction in pump and valve internal clearance by scaling, and the plugging of small control lines often requires dismantling and descaling, or eventual replacement. Most corrosion and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... descale/activator. Adjust to proper operating conditions if necessary. Poor throwing power or plating distribution Metal content too high Analyze and adjust. Plating current density too low Check and adjust current setting. Pitting Organic contamination Check for carbon and treat if...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... annealed material, copper alloys must be (a) pickled after each annealing treatment, (b) completely descaled, and (c) bright dipped to produce a natural surface color and luster suitable for other finishing treatments such as electroplating or painting. Scale dip and bright dip solutions are given in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
....) of the finished surface or to within one-half of the finish stock allowance, whichever is smaller. In general, surface tolerances apply after cleaning and descaling. Allowance for metal loss by cleaning and descaling is made by the forging producer when the dies are made. The thickness of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... application of materials in this industry, and current issues relative to pharmaceutical equipment construction, warrant closer examination. References 1. “Standard Practice for Cleaning, Descaling, and Passivation of Stainless Steel Parts, Equipment, and Systems,” A 380, ASTM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... stainless steel strip is created equal when it comes to the passive layer. Two compositions may be essentially identical, but one may have a chromium/iron ratio of 1.5 and the other a chromium/iron ratio of only 0.2. This difference arises from the use, or nonuse, of nitric acid in descaling the strip. If...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cleaning is usually followed by acid pickling. The forgings are then thoroughly washed in water. Barrel finishing (tumbling) is sometimes used for descaling. Acid pickling is recommended after tumbling. Wire brushing is sometimes used for removing scale from a few forgings. Brushes with stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the dies on slabs of heated steel (warmers). Any cooling of the open dies is incidental and results from the compressed air or high-pressure water spray used in descaling the forging in process or from the ambient temperature of the forge shop. Lubrication is usually not required for open-die...