1-20 of 118 Search Results for

depth of focus

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... chloride ions is one of the principal causes of steel corrosion in concrete. These result from airborne contaminants or deicing salts. Various attempts at reducing or eliminating the corrosion problem have focused on protective coatings for the steel members (galvanizing, painting, and so on), decreasing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... measured because there is no force to remove it, and this distorts the results. Oxide layers on surfaces such as aluminum can also present problems, because the focusing lens will oscillate between the top and bottom of the oxide layer, giving the false impression of a very rough surface. The focus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on transport phenomena and modeling approaches that are specific to vapor-phase processes (VPP). It discusses the VPP for the synthesis of materials. The article reviews the basic notions of molecular collisions and gas flows, and presents transport equations. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., water or air immersion transducers, or laser velocimetry sensors. Guided wave ultrasound using piezoelectric, EMAT, or magnetostrictive sensors. This is a growing inspection approach because of advancement of techniques for focusing, steering, temperature, and dispersion curve compensation, and...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... an explanation on mechanisms, forms (sliding, impact, and rolling) and the causes of wear. It describes the wear measuring methods, including the mass loss method, wear width method, and scar depth method. The units used to report wear vary with type of wear and with the purpose for which the data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. Some successful uses of EMATs are mentioned to illustrate the depth, range, and potential of commercial EMAT applications. The article concludes with information on the commercial sources for EMAT systems and components. electromagnetic acoustic transducers nondestructive evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Furthermore, interfaces may undergo phase transformations when the crystallographic parameters, temperature, pressure, or chemical composition are changed. The computation effort can be drastically reduced by focusing it on specific questions that result from the physical model. The structure of interfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... process data needed for accurate heat treatment simulation and methods for their determination. Section 5 focuses on the methods for validating heat treatment simulations, with a special emphasis on the underlying philosophy for selection and design of validation tests. Section 6 aims to demonstrate the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... brought to the attention of the scientific community. Zapffe's work on application of the light microscope to fractography was regarded by many as definite ( Ref 51 ). Although bothered by the relatively small depth of focus of the light microscope, Zapffe and his co-workers were able to orient the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... images. Screens of this type are available for 35-mm SLR cameras. The plane of focus will be rendered with the highest resolution in the final image. The region with greatest significance should lie in this plane. Once the magnification is set, by fixing the lens-to-film distance, fine focusing is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ceramic parts and raw materials. The depth of focus provided by this instrument makes it very well suited for rough failure surfaces. Indeed, many samples are prepared for SEM by fracturing to reveal microstructure. However, caution must be exercised in this case, because failure may follow a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...? When classified by the dimensions of material sampled, techniques are frequently categorized as: Bulk: Information typically obtained and integrated over surface dimensions on the order of 10 −2 m or more and depths of at least 50 × 10 −6 m, presumably characteristic of the bulk material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... on the wheel surface are exposed to different depths of cut due to their varying amounts of protrusion from the wheel surface. Therefore, each of these particles cuts out a different volume of material, and their tip temperatures are likely to differ. Indeed, this is seen to be the case in Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... useful when it is desirable to relate the origin to abuse damage on the adjacent surface. Because of its great depth of focus, the scanning electron microscope is generally used to obtain these, but the optical microscope can also be effective at lower magnification. The history of the part and the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... microscopy (TEM), in which resolutions in the range of 0.2 nm (2 Å) are attainable and the depth of focus is such that the image is, in effect, a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional object. The electrons can be focused to produce an approximately parallel, coherent beam of 2 to 6 μm (80 to 240...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... alternating magnetic fields/coil Simple tolerance setting Surfaces, volume layer close to surface ~0.2 to 2 mm (0.008 to 0.08 in.) Local volume >0.3 to 2 mm (0.012 to 0.08 in.) Local volume >~0.5 mm (0.02 in.) with limited depth below surface depending on density variation Penetration depth of eddy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... operation that governs the residual stress profile imparted to the component prior to its use or service. Exceptions occur when the final machining operation has a penetration depth smaller than the previous ones ( Ref 3 ). In such situations, the superimposition of residual stress must be considered ( Fig...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article explains how ceramic powders are made. It begins by briefly describing the raw materials used in structural clay products, whitewares, refractories, and advanced ceramics. It then examines various additives that promote uniformity at different stages of the process. After...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... angles without mechanically moving the probe. Some of the advantages of the phased array technology include: Traditional mechanical scanning is replaced by much faster electronic scanning ( Fig. 8 ). Electronic focusing allows the use of a single probe for working at different focal depths...